Source: Vihaga Veekshanam Blog.

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The methods adopted by the invaders have left behind them their aftermath. One aftermath is the bitterness between the Hindus and the Muslims which they have caused. This bitterness, between the two, is so deep-seated that a century of political life has neither succeeded in assuaging it, nor in making people forget it. As the invasions were accompanied with destruction of temples and forced conversions, with spoliation of property, with slaughter, enslavement and abasement of men, women and children, what wonder if the memory of these invasions has ever remained green, as a source of pride to the Muslims and as a source of shame to the Hindus?[1] (Ambedkar, Pakistan or the Partition of India)

The event that paved path for partition of India, has been clearly mentioned in Ambedkar’s book – Pakistan or the Partition of India. He affirms that, the rift between Hindus and Muslims that existed during partition and which continues till day, is not something which evolved in a century, after 1925 as many claims it to be. He clarifies it was the barbaric and merciless acts of the invaders, blinded by religion, that transcended through generations and finally paved path for the Partition and the bloodsheds that accompanied.

The series of invasions, fuelled by religious intolerance and blinded by faith, starting from Quasim, which gained pace with Gazni and Gori and resulted in the genocide of Hindus, were explained in detail in the following pages as mentioned below.

Muhammad of Gazni also looked upon his numerous invasions of India as the waging of a holy war. Al Utbi, the historian of Muhamad, describing his raids writes: —

“He demolished idol temples and established Islam. He captured cities, killed the polluted wretches, destroying the idolaters, and gratifying Muslims. ‘He then returned home, and promulgated accounts of the victories obtained for Islam and vowed that every year he would undertake a holy war against Hindustan”

Muhammad Ghori was actuated by the same holy zeal in his invasions of India. Hasan Nizami, the historian, describes his work in the following terms: —

“He purged by his sword the land of Hind from the filth of infidelity and vice, and freed the whole of that country from the thorn of God-plurality and the impurity of idol-worship, and by his royal vigor and intrepidity left not one temple standing.![2]

The object of Mongol descendant Timur was to bring the infidels to the path of truth. Destroy their temples, overthrowing their idols and free Hindustan from the defilement of misbelief and polytheism and establish Islamic faith.

With reference to various historians, Ambedkar explains how Khilji attacked Nalanda and killed Buddhists, whom he refer to as “tonsured Brahmins.”

“Minhaj-as-Siraj further tells how Mahmud became widely known for having destroyed as many as a thousand temples, and of his great feat in destroying the temple of Somnath and carrying of its idol, which he asserts was broken into four parts. “One part he deposited in the Jami Masjid of Gazni, one he placed at the entrance of the royal palace, the third he sent to Mecca, and the fourth to Medina.”

 Muhammad bin Quasim, made an exception of the famous temple at Multan for purposes of revenue, as this temple was a place of resort for pilgrims, who made large gifts to the idol. Nevertheless, while he thus satisfied his avarice by letting the temple stand, he gave vent to his malignity by having a piece of cow’s flesh tied around the neck of the idol.[3]

Qutb-ud-Din Aybak, Ala-ud-Din Khilji were no exceptions, Aybak destroyed and looted 1000s of temples and Amir Khusru testifies that, Khilji followed the same path and extended the raids of his ancestors in North to South India as well.

The temple demolitions Shah Jahan, who built Taj Mahal for his beloved has been recorded in Shah jahan Namah:-

“It had been brought to the notice of His Majesty, says the historian, that during the late reign (of Akbar) many idol-temples had been begun but remained unfinished at Benares, the great stronghold of infidelity. The infidels were now desirous of completing them. His Majesty, the defender of the faith, gave orders that at Benares and throughout all his dominions in every place all temples that had been begun should be cast down. It was reported from the Province of Allahabad that 76 temples had been destroyed in the district of Benares,[4]

During the reign of Ala-ud-Din Khilji and other Muslim rulers, the much hated Jizya was imposed on the non-believers, the only exception was, under the rule of Akbar. Jizya was intended to implement the religious policies of the Islamic rulers and was a reflection of their intolerance towards other religions.

When Ala-ud-Din Khilji asks how the legal position of non-believers should be under Islamic rule, Kazi’s response was:-

 “They are called payers of tribute, and when the revenue officer demands silver from them, they should without question, and with all humility and respect, tender gold. If the officer throws dirt in their mouths, they must without reluctance open their mouths wide to receive it…… To keep the Hindus in abasement is especially a religious duty, because they are the most inveterate enemies of the Prophet, and because the Prophet has commanded us to slay them, plunder them, and make them captive, saying ‘Convert them to Islam or kill them… has assented to the imposition of Jizya on Hindus; doctors of other schools allow no other alternative but ‘Death or Islam’.[5]

All these invaders, shared the women captured during these “Holy wars” among themselves and the men were sold as slaves. The one who refused to convert to Islam were rewarded with death. All these invasion with an intend to destroy infidels had a long-lasting impact on the social and cultural sphere of India. It was a ripple effect of all these, which divided the two communities and ultimately paved its path for the partition.


[1] Pakistan or Partition of India’, B R Ambedkar, Page 47. Thacker and Company Limited, Rampart Row. 1945.

[2] Pakistan or Partition of India’, B R Ambedkar, Page 38. Thacker and Company Limited, Rampart Row. 1945.

[3] Pakistan or Partition of India’, B R Ambedkar, Page 40. Thacker and Company Limited, Rampart Row. 1945.

[4] Pakistan or Partition of India’, B R Ambedkar, Page 42. Thacker and Company Limited, Rampart Row. 1945.

[5] Pakistan or Partition of India’, B R Ambedkar, Page 45. Thacker and Company Limited, Rampart Row. 1945.