‘SANSKRIT : THE LANGUAGE OF THE SOUL’ — A Talk by Sampadananda Mishra
Namaste to everyone.
I was asked to tell the audience something about Sanskrit Language. Sanskrit is such a language, I have not come here to boast about Sanskrit, to preach about its greatness. The experience which I have gained from worshipping this Sanskrit language, the experience which I understand is my strength with which I am sustaining my life, those experiences I want to share with you.
The media which helps express emotions, all such media of Sanskrit language, if taken as a separate subject, one by one and everyday lectures are given on it, like there are shlokas, that if we keep on explaining till eternity, even then it will not come to an end. Some things about experience, some of my thoughts about the practical aspect of Sanskrit language, that I will present.
And, we have kept the topic that Sanskrit is the language of our soul, the language of the Soul. Why did we choose this topic that Sanskrit is the language of the soul, what does it mean? Sanskrit as a global language, planetary language, scientific language, perfect language, as a language of Yoga, we have heard on a lot many topics. But, this topic we have kept that language of the soul, what is its relation with the soul and why this kind of topic was chosen? All of us, when we grew up from childhood, we were sent to a school, to do what? Why do we go to school? To earn knowledge, now studying since childhood we go up to M.A., Ph.D., above, much above that. What do we learn there? Whatever they teach we learn that. If we are asked what is the goal of education? Why do we get educated? What is the meaning of education? Why should we go to School? Study these subjects, take exams, then the thing about pass and fail, if we pass with good percentage then it’s all right, if we fail then the problems which are there, you know about that. Why should we tolerate all this burden? Are we, from the starting, getting education after understanding what is the meaning of education? Or, whatever Education is being provided to us, is it given to attain that great target, that greater target? what do we do on being educated? What is the goal of our life? why have we come here? About a lot of rishi munis, earlier rishi munis also rishi munis from today, about all these you must have heard that they used to ask this question that who am I, why I have come? What is my purpose, what is my target? These kinds of questions we do not ask today. If someone kidnaps us we ask why have you brought me here? What is my purpose? At that point the question arises. But on a general level, this question does not arise in our heart. You must have heard something about Upanishad, Veda, Gita and all these Scriptures. On the basis of Upanishad, my Research is there on Upanishads, I made a collation from that, what is there in that collation? That the rishi muni who were there in Upanishad Yuga, the Seekers in that Yuga, what kind of Questions they were looking Answers for? So, I collated all the kinds of Questions from all Upanishads, almost 30 Questions were taken from the Upanishads. The Answer to these questions, they went for education with these Questions, always kept these Questions in front and searched for answer to these. We go for obtaining education but without any Question in our Hearts. We are asked again and again, ‘Any Question’, everyone keeps quiet. Any Question in your mind? No. No Questions come to the mind, it feels all doubts are removed. But this Question if asked in the older times that what is the target of life? What is the target of Education? The target of all Education has been covered in only two Words. Very important Words have been given, two Words, what are they? Aatmaanam Viddhi. In only two Words, the target of all Education has been covered. Aatmaanam Viddhi means, identify your Soul, know it. The Education which cannot connect us to our Soul, then that Education is not Education.
Aatma vaa Are Drashtavyo Shrotavyo Mantavyo Nididhyaasitavyo. Whatever happened in the name of Education, these kinds of many examples you can take out from Scriptures. Whatever happened was linked to the Aatmaa.
Take Panini, a very technical Scripture, Ashtaadhyaayee, highly technical. It’s a kind of Software Programme, which was made without any Hardware. Where was the Hardware in those times? So, this technical a Scripture has been given. You will think what will I gain from this? How will I get Emancipation? In our culture, In our culture, whatever Scripture you pick up, Veda, Upanishad, Gita, these are Spiritual Scriptures. Apart from these Scriptures, if you take Scriptures on Grammar, Kamasutras of Vatsyayana, or take up Scriptures on Physics, Chemistry, Metallurgy. This target of Life, these Elements of Creation, philosophy., has not been taken up by anyone. Every Scripture is about Emancipation.
I will give you an example, this language, I will come to the language later on. Panini wrote the Ashtadhyayi Scripture. You all will be acquainted with this name also. The Formulae of Panini, his style and the technique he employed, that and those who have read. In presenting this so, technical a subject, the target, the Element of Creation, Philosophy, Philosophy of the Creation, he did not forget any of these. Because here, Philosophy, Technique, everything is together, not separate from each other, Inseparable.
I want to give you an example from Panini. When we teach or study the Kaaraka Chapter in Ashtadhyayi, what is the first Kaaraka in Ashtadhyayi? If you have read Ashtadhyayi, in the Kaaraka Chapter k, first the Karta, the Karma, the Karana, the Sampraddana, the Apaadaana and then Sambandha, the Adhikarana., in this order it comes from One to Seven, the Sixth is not taken as a Kaaraka, its Sambandha. So, these Karta, Karma, Karana, Sampradaana, Apaadaana and Adhikarana, in this order when we study Prakriya, we come to know.
Which Kaaraka did Panini give the first place? Didn’t give it to Karta, Karma, Karana, Sampradaana or Adhikarana. First place was given to Apaadaana. The first Formula in Panini’s Ashtadhyayi in the Kaaraka Chapter is ‘Apaadaana’. Why did he keep Apaadaana? Now from the eye of panini, from the Technique of Panini, the answer will be different. But I am not going on to that, I want to connect to Panini on the basis of Elements of Creation, the Philosophy you get in Vedas, Upanishads. What is the meaning of the word Apaadaana. The meaning of the word Apaadaana which Panini has given, the Definition, Dhruvam Apaayi Apaadaanam. This is the Formula written by Panini. Apaayi, Apaaya means Separation, on getting Separated, like a Leaf is falling from a Tree, now who is getting Separated? Tree getting separated from the Leaf and the Leaf being separated from the Tree, separation is from both sides, but which is the Apaadaana? Panini says that the Fixed, the Fixed part is the Apaadaana. If it is falling from the Tree, then the Tree is the Apaadaana. This is the place where we use the fifth case. Vrikshaat Patram Patati, the total Apaadaana Chapter, separation is the keynote there.
In the second Formula, Panini writes, Bheetraarthaanaam Bhayahetuh. This means if we give an example, fearing the tiger, if we say this in Sanskrit, fearing the tiger, the cause of fear means that which produces fear is the Apaadaana. Sight of tiger induces fear, sight of thief induces fear, sight of ghost induces fear, so that which induces fear is Apaadaana. Now, I had a question in my mind since my childhood, which was not answered by any teacher, not in M.A., not in M.Phil., not in Ph.D. Whoever I asked could not answer this question. The question in my mind was that if Panini decided that separation, getting bereft, if Apaaya is the keynote in Apaadaana, now I feel fear only when I see the tiger, fear is felt only when there is the thought of the tiger, when I see the ghost, then there is fear, where is the Apaadaana here? This was the question.
I got the answer to this question when I was reading Shree Aurobindo’s commentary on Ishavasya Upanishad, I got it well I was reading Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad. What is the co-relation between them? This “bhaya hetu” which has been written by Panini, what I meant to say is that when our Rishi Muni have given us a scripture, be it any scripture, related to Science or any scripture, it is never different from, the ultimate target, the ultimate element. All scriptures are scriptures of emancipation from this viewpoint.
What is written in the Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad? What is the root cause of fear? Why does fear get induced? The cause of fear here, it is not the tiger, not the ghost, not the devil, not the thief, fear is induced when, thus says the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, “Dviteeyaad vai bhayam”. When there is a second entity, then there is fear, when that duality is not there, when we stay in oneness, then where will fear come from?
Any language can become a mantrik language, any language. The own state of inanimation of a language, a mantrik language can be created by taking the language above that state of inanimation. It depends on the users of the language. Who is using, for example, Swami Vivekananda, Ramana Maharshi, Shri Aurobindo, all the Rishis of the modern times, specially Shri Aurobindo, I am coming from there only. I’m a follower of Shri Aurobindo. When you study the life divine scriptures of Sh. Aurobindo or the Savitri scripture, you do not feel like you are reading English. Even the much senior professors of English language also do not understand his language. One who has never read anything can understand his language easily. This is the matter of consciousness.
At that place there was a Babaji Maharaj. Babaji Maharaj’s educational qualification is class V. He did not go above V. The difficult language of Sh. Aurobindo, scriptures like Savitri, scriptures like life divine, scriptures like synthesis of the Yogi, he would teach people with such ease, how did he understand so easily. You must have heard the name of Vasishtha Ganapati Muni. And if you have not, he was the first and primary disciple of Bhagwan Ramana Maharshi, whose Ashram is in Tiruvannamalai. He only found Bhagwan Ramana Maharshi. This name “Bhagwan Ramana Maharshi” was given by him only. He had relations with Shri Aurobindo as well and also with the mother. Vasishtha Ganapati Muni was such a staunch advocate of Swadeshi that he would not even look at hoardings in English. It was not hate, but his feelings for Swadeshi. Because he was beyond hate and all this. He was so much Swadeshi that he would not read, write or even look at English. But, books like secret of the Veda, The Mother, authored by Sh. Aurobindo, he could very easily translate them to Sanskrit. He did not know the language. So, Sh. Aurobindo was once asked that this Muni does not know even the alphabets of English, but he can so easily and so well translate them to Sanskrit, when Sh. Aurobindo saw the translation, he said, it looks better than the original. It is not difficult, it looks difficult to us. What did Sh. Aravind say. So, when Sh. Aravind was asked this, he gave the answer that whoever is open to the truth, whoever is looking for the truth, the truth descends on to him, truth enters their consciousness on its own like they say “Vivrnute tanoom svaam”.
So, it gets subsumed on its own, in its consciousness. Language is not a barrier. Language is not a barrier and their connection get established with the consciousness which is present in that language. When it is made then every language becomes easy. Why is Sanskrit difficult? Because Sanskrit is not an ordinary language. It is not a survival language. It is not a conventional language. It is a language of the consciousness and you should stay calm from the inside. As the Mother said once, if you want to speak effectively for one hour, remain quiet for ten hours. If we sit quietly for 10 hours, stay calm, then we can speak effectively for an hour, this would be influential. Where is that peace now? Where do we study Sanskrit like that? Do we study any Scripture? The words I have used, ‘Manana’, ‘Chintana’, ‘Nididhyaasana’, ‘Darshana’, the act of studying has declined. Do we do ‘Manana’? That consciousness, if we move up from our ordinary consciousness towards higher level, move towards higher consciousness, we will also be able to understand Sanskrit bhasha on our own.
It is not difficult. It seems difficult to them. Shri Aravind is difficult for those who are not connected to the consciousness. Those who stay in the ordinary consciousness. Otherwise, how can people like Bababji Maharaj who have studied till class V only, understand Savitri? Kabir Das was totally uneducated, but what he said is only Veda. There were great Mimamsakas, Naiyyayikas, Vaisheshikas, very great scholars in his time, Vedantis, Chaturvedis, all were there. All used to come to him and ask you say thusly, what does it mean? If this happened so, how did it happen? They would bring so much logic that Kabir Das would get scared, he would not know what he should say. And would say only one thing at the end, ‘You say what is written on the paper, I say what I have seen with my eyes’. You are saying what you have read, and I am saying only what I am seeing. This is to be noted. Where is that philosophy when we study/teach Sanskrit in educational institutions. Where is that thing about philosophy. Therefore, Sanskrit seems difficult and if we look at Sanskrit as a language of Consciousness and connect it to our Soul then Sanskrit would become totally easy for us.
And it’s structure. the structure of this language, the way it is designed, the way it is shaped by the seers and sages, very logical and is always related to the consciousness, each word, because as I told it’s not a survival language, it’s not a conventional language, what is there in conventional language? Conventional language if you look at it, its all object specific, what is this in English? Hand, what is this? What is this? That’s all. Someone told us, taught us, we learnt it. But you do not have the right to ask why it is called Hand? Why this is called nose? You are not allowed to ask this question. If you ask, you will be ridiculed. Or, if you are not ridiculed, you will not get a satisfactory answer. Sometimes, yes if we go back to the History of the development of the Language, we can find out some history about it some facts about it. Why it is called.
But to a good extent we will not be able to tell why it is so. But there is no single word in Sanskrit that which is object specific. What I mean to say is that, if you ask is there no word in Sanskrit for Hand? None for Nose? Not for Chair? Not for Table? There are, not one, many. For one object, sometimes you will find more than a hundred names. Then how do you say it is not object specific?
Because if there are a hundred words for an object, then you look at those hundred words. Analyze them. What is the root form of that word? And this question of Why, you can always ask in Sanskrit for every word. Why it is so? And you will get the right answer also. Have you seen Amarakosha? Read it? Amarakosha has the list compiled for all the words used for an object. Like for example if you take ‘Jala’, for ‘Jala’, for Water, we find thirty words in Amarakosha. 34 for Agni. Similarly, for some objects here are 52 words and for some 60. Of many types. All the words that are used, there is a comprehensive list of them in Amarakosha. Only one word is spoken in English for Water, Water. There is no other word for it. Here we have 30 words. And what is the meaning of these 30 words? Why is water called ‘Jala’? You may ask the question now. And ‘Jala’ is not water only. Now we must understand why is water called ‘Jala’? Water is called ‘Jala’ because it has the property of turning into liquid from solid. It is the property of water to become inanimate.
That nature to become inanimate, the tendency to become inanimate is in water. Therefore, it is called ‘Jal’. There is not much difference between ‘jal’ and inanimate. This is the nature of water. Why is water called “Vari”? Vrnoti aavrnoti aacchaadayati, it shrouds in the form of clouds. This is also a nature of water. Similarly, look at fire. Why fire is called ‘Agni’? This word is derived from the root ‘Ag’, ‘Ag’ means going upwards. The plume of Agni has the nature of going upwards. Never will the plume of Agni go downwards. Therefore, the word “Agra” is also from that root. Agra means, when you say Agra, you either look to your front or to your above. Why is Agni called “Anala”? What does ‘Anala’ mean? “Anala” is made from “Na alam”. Like “Na ashva”, is “Anashva”, “Na alam” is “Anala”. “Na alam” means not sufficient. Agni is the ever dissatisfied one. Even if the whole of creation comes to his mouth, it is still dissatisfied. Nobody could satisfy Agni. Nothing is enough. Not enough, not enough. When this was experienced that this is also a nature, a property of Agni, then it was named “Anala”. So, this is how we will analyse the words. So, if there are 30 words for water, then these 30 words tell us about 30 natures, 30 properties, 30 qualities of water.
So, from a view point, we are not only learning words we are learning science in totality. What does a scientist want? Who has the knowledge? When a scientist looks at water, when a common man looks at water, what is the difference between them? So, all the substance which a scientist can find out, generally people are not able to do that. So, the job of Rishi Munis was, they made this language in such a way that it has complete science in it. If while reading we know about 34 names of Agni, then we know about 34 properties of Agni.
Think about -Ayurveda. We find the substance – nature of more than 800 – 900 trees in Ayurveda. Each tree has 15-20 properties and based on the nature and effect the words are made. So, if there are 15 words for Gudchi, then 15 properties of Gudchi are shown based on which medicines are made. If this language is looked at from this viewpoint, each and every word is conscious of its own history. Each and every word is conscious of its own history. The word itself can tell you why it stands for a particular idea of a particular object.
The word itself explains why it is used for an object or an idea. If there is a problem, it gives solution also. I would like to present one or two examples here. A mantrik language grows organically. Its development is a natural process. Like a tree becomes root from its seed and then it grows. The birth of Sanskrit language is in this order: from its seed syllable, then root, basic root, then the word from the root, the rest from the word. We say that when we are in doubt, a confusion is born, what do we say in English., doubt. And tell me, why does doubt arise? Can the word doubt explain you, why doubt happens? What is the source of doubt? What happens when I say that I doubt? At a psychological level, what exactly is that state of doubt or source of doubt? Yes. . . this or this, confusion arises. Why does confusion arise? Why do we question? what is right and what is wrong? How do we solve this? If we always keep falling in doubt, then what is its source? Words are not formed like this in Sanskrit. This language is the language which is always connected to our soul. And it always connects us to ourselves.
There are a lot of words in Sanskrit for doubt. Like “Shanka”, “Sandigdhataa”, “Sanshaya”. I will take a word, “Sandeha”. Sandeha means doubt. And with this, I will show you, explain to you that what is the source of doubt. And how can you resolve it. This is about experience. And the language is made in such a manner. Sandeha is made of 2 words. Which 2 words? “Sam”, this is a prefix and “deha” is a preposition. Sandeha word is formed by joining the word Deha with the prefix “Sam”, which means doubt. Now, you can ask, why is it so? Why was the word for doubt made in such a manner? What does “Sam” mean? You must have heard of a word in English “Sum”. What does it mean? Sum = total. This “Sam” is also same, totality, sum total, totality, perfection, togetherness. These are the experiences from ” Sam”. Now, the first doubt which arises is, what is the meaning if “Deha”? Body. What is the connection between body and doubt? Together with “Sam”, it would be a good body, meaning perfect body. If we translate it literally, only this would be the meaning because we do not know the other meaning of “Deha”.
Now, here you may question that why only the word “Deha” has been used for the body. So we analyze the word “Deha”. The root from which Deha word comes is “Dih”, the root “Dih”. For Dih root, “Dhaatavah anekaarthaah”. There are a lot of meanings behind a root, a lot of meanings. And all these meanings are the basic experiences of the human civilization. These are not merely ordinary senses. The basic experience behind the word Dih is “Dih upachaye”. “Upachaya” means gathering. Gathering the things scattered here and there. Upachaya. This is the first experience. And the notion of meanings of a language, the way meanings are arranged later. An original idea leads to another idea. That leads to further ideas. So, in this manner a lot many words, are related words. If gathering is a first experience, then this experience of gathering takes you towards which second experience? Like you people are sitting there. I am standing here. And, we decided that we will collect. What will we collect? We are interested in books. All of us will collect books. There was no book here. We will collect and gather them here. You brought a book, I did, and all of it was collected here. What then proceeds from collecting? There was no book here, now there are 500. Became 500 from zero. What is experience? First you look at the meaning of roots psychologically, first the physical experience which is immediate experience. If something is gathered here, then what is the physical experience? Increase. Nothing was, then it went from 0 to 500. It increased. So, second level of meaning of ‘Dih’, the primary meaning is to ‘collect, to gather, to compile, to pile up, to collect’. The next idea comes from the same meaning, this root meaning is to grow, to increase, to enhance. Whatever its meanings are, to grow. It grew since there was nothing. Physically its growing. Then, you can have the psychological senses like enhancement.
So, what is the next physical experience of that growth? If something grew, you people are sitting there, and I am here and something grew in between. What is physical experience? You people cannot see me, neither can I see you. Why did it happen? Cover. It blocks. If something grows here, then vision gets blocked. So, the physical sense of growth is immediate physical experience, it blocks, it covers. Then all the psychological meanings of this can also be covered. Therefore, “Dhaatavah anekaarthaah”. So, this meaning at three levels can be understood and logically told that why the body is called Deh. The first level to gather, to collect. Body is not one, body is a collection of so many things – Flesh, marrow, the five great senses. All these substances are present in it. It is not one thing, it is a collection of so many things. First level meaning. What is the second level meaning? To grow. The body is also called “Tanoo”. “Tan” is its root. It has the property of growing. The size which we were born in, is not our size today.
It has grown. It will grow more. It has the property of growing. What is the third level meaning? To cover. This is a deeper meaning that the body is just a cover which conceals the soul. Because body is a cover, it is a box. You can explain the word Deh at these three levels. Now think of it, which language in the whole world has made its words like this. It’s not singing glories of Sanskrit. It is the science. And, in what consciousness was this language made. We will analyze each word and ponder upon it, and we will see how does it connect us to ourselves.
Now, what does “sandeh” mean? We attach the word “Deh” with “sam” prefix. The primary meaning of the root “dih” which stayed is “to cover”. So, Sandeh means perfect covering. How so? When our consciousness is in a covered state, then doubt is born. This covers the consciousness. If the consciousness is clouded, the reality is concealed. You don’t see the reality. So, clouding of the consciousness, the consciousness being in a covered state is the basic reason for doubt to exist. But, there is clarity in consciousness, doubt will not be born. No, in that manner all the words in doubt. . . are different. What is the covered consciousness? Staying in shrunken state. Getting confined. This doubt and getting confined in that state with it, this is shrunken. Does not want to be open. Want to stay in that sleep state in doubt. This makes us like that. Does not let us open. This is about consciousness. So, if we know, get to know that the clouding of consciousness is the basic reason for doubt to exist, then we can work on it and be freed from doubt. If you analyze all the words of Sanskrit, then you will see that it is a language connected with human psychology, fundamental experiences of the humanity and basic experiences of human civilization.
And it always connects. I will present analysis of two more words. And if we ponder over, think about it from this view point and then accept Sanskrit language, and connect with the consciousness, the power behind Sanskrit language. When Sanskrit language is not difficult, no scripture will seem difficult. We can learn this language also easily. Now tell me, what is such a thing in the world that if given to someone, he will not refuse, no one will refuse. If you say knowledge, there are a lot of people, who will say they do not want it. Money, peace, there are a lot of people who will refuse peace, a lot many people are scared of peace. Then, what is such a thing which no one in the world. . . may be someone will refuse that also. The dispassionate people will refuse love. Neither emancipation. They will refuse emancipation also. But, what is such a thing which universally no one will refuse? These people do not want it, then why run so far. Get free as soon as possible. And after which we run always. Madam says, happiness. Whoever you ask, they want happiness, no one will deny. And surprising thing is that no human being consciously does anything which will make him unhappy.
In the conscious state we do not do anything which will make us unhappy. Our all activities are for happiness only so that we get happiness we get pleasure. Is it not? Now look at it, we want happiness with such intensity and we don’t do anything which may result in unhappiness. And the thing which we want intensely, we definitely get it. Do we get it or not? We want something intensely, if we want it we will get it. Now the question is, is the world happy? Is anyone happy in this world? I include myself also in this. No one is happy. Why? Even on desiring with such intensity, no one is happy. Scriptures, as they say in Buddhism, the tears flown by human beings if collected at one place, then it may be even more than the seven seas. This world is full of sorrow. But, the scriptures tell us, “Aanandeva imaani bhootaani jaayante”. This creation is from pleasure, creation is born from pleasure. It sustains on pleasure and gets dissolved into pleasure. There is hair, nothing but pleasure exists. Is it not contrasting? At one place we say everything is full of pleasure, all blissful lord, the supreme reality, “sachchidaananda”, you cannot separate the three words from it. If you say “sat”, then “chit” and “aananda” are also present in it, if you say “chit”, “ananda” and “sat” are also present. If you say only “aananda” then “sat” and “chit” are also present in it, therefore Taittariya Upanishat speaks about all the “kosha” and the last Kosha is “aanandamaya kosha”. Ananda does not mean any unique pleasure, it is “Sachchidananda”, Sat and Chit are part of it. So, if this creation is born from pleasure, lives in pleasure, will get dissolved in pleasure at the end, then what is this sorrow? What is nonexistence of pleasure? Why is the world suffering? What is this evil?
We see all this in our daily lives. Then should we be convinced with our scriptures or not. What the scriptures say, we do not observe that in daily life, practical life. But, the scriptures are not wrong. Scriptures cannot be wrong. To explain this, I will take two words. What are those two words? “Sukha” and “duhkha”. I gave so much examples to explain how this language has been made. What was the vision of Rishi Munis behind the creation of this language? What does “duhkha” mean? Generally, we translate it as pleasure and pain, “sukha” and “duhkha”. And today, as I have been telling that Sanskrit is a non-translatable language, it is not so easy to understand this. If we translate in general, then Sukha is not happiness, Duhkha is not unhappiness. Now, look at Sukha and Duhkha, both these words, an element is common to both. What is it? “Kha”. “Su” is a prefix, “duh” is also a prefix. “Su” means that which is easy, comfortable, “duh” means that which is difficult. So, how do translate this, good “kha” and bad “kha”. “kha” means what? Now, speak “ka”, everyone say togather “ka”, then say “kha”, what is the difference between “ka” and “kha”?
‘ka’ and ‘kha’. In speaking ‘ka’, we feel that it pulls inwards or keeps us inside, ‘kha’ feels like throwing everything outwards. ‘ka’ is a sound of contraction. The weakly aspirated, weakly aspirated and hard aspirated are both different, weakly aspirated means those sounds which can be pronounced with less energy, the contracted sound, it keeps us inwards. Hard aspirated ones opens us up, the sound of expansion, this nature, this tendency, this property, this is a property of ‘kha’, therefore what do we call the space? ‘kha’. Why do we call the sky, the space as ‘kha’? Bird is called ‘khaga’, ‘khe gacchati’, ‘khaga’. ‘kha’ means sky, sky is the expansion.
So even physically, the property of expansion in the high aspirated tendency of ‘kha’ in the alphabets is its own. Until, now to explain this a little discussion on scripture is required. Now when Arjuna in Bhagvad Gita puts his Gaandeeva aside and says he will not fight. Then he uses a word in the second chapter, ‘kaarpanyadoshopahata svabhaavah pricchaami tvaam dharmmasammoodhachetaah’. What is this ‘kaarpanya dosha’? ‘kaarpanya dosha’. The fault of ‘krpana’. Who is a Krpana? Miser, Misery. Who is a Miser? Who does not give. Who is that? The one who does not give is called Miser. But we forget, all of use are great Misers, we all have that Misery in us. ‘Krpana’ does not mean only the one who does not give outer things, does not give money, does not give this.
If we do not open ourselves from the inside, do not develop, then we are ‘Krpana’, until we want to bind ourselves in the ordinary consciousness, till then this fault is ‘Kaarpanya Dosha’. This is the root cause for all our troubles. We need to open more, therefore the ‘Chhandogya Upanishat’ says, …’hatassvaabhaava’…. means the nature has been kept so closed, why does it not let me open up? And this is the reason that depression steps in, dejection steps in. What do you do in depressed state? When depression steps in, there would not be any one in this meeting who has not gone through depression. What do we do in the state of Depression? Do not want to talk to anyone, want to sit quiet. Want to sit in a corner, do not want to go out, this is ‘Kaarpanya Dosha’, want to keep closed.
Mother in Shri Aurobindo’s Ashram told a very beautiful activity, a method she has given, how to get freed from depression. She told when you feel depressed don’t confine yourself into the four corners of the room, come out, go to the terrace, look at the sky, feel the vast expansion and within a few seconds your depression will go. Go outside, think about the ocean, then the consciousness will open up, same happened with Arjuna.
Then this thing about Happiness and Sorrow, when we are living relatively in the narrowness of our consciousness, when we stay contracted, then the pleasure which gave birth to creation, the pleasure in which it lives, the pleasure in which this creation will dissolve, this pleasure is ever existing. Forever, omnipresent, there is not a single moment in which this pleasure does not exist, but we do not experience it because of the problem of the consciousness, because of the narrowness of our consciousness, we don’t experience the pleasure, so when we are living in the narrowness of our consciousness, then it becomes difficult, “duh” to experience the ever existing “aananda” which is “kha”. Sorrow means, difficult to experience the ever-existing Pleasure, the Pleasure which is with us forever, we are not able to experience that pleasure, that Pleasure does not become available, suffering follows, it is difficult because we are in a contracted state of consciousness, narrow level. “yo vai bhoomaa tat sukham, naalpe sukhamasti”, Chhandogya Upanishad. And when we are relatively living in the wider consciousness, then it becomes easier to experience the Pleasure. “Sukha”, “su” is easy. So, “sukha” is neither Happiness, “duhkha” is nor unhappiness, these are two psychological states, in the “duhkha”, we call that state “duhkha”, when we don’t experience “ananda”, that state we call “sukha” when relatively we live in the wider consciousness.
So, what should we do now? Who teaches us all this? Sanskrit language teaches us this. The design of words in this manner, this language is decorated in such a manner that it is always connected with the consciousness, it is connected with the soul. This language helps us know our soul, connects us with our consciousness and with the aware use of this language, consciousness gets developed, we reach the state of developed consciousness. So, this is when I thought of Sanskrit as the language of the soul and thought of speaking about this to the people. So I brought all these examples here. There are a lot of other things. Now if you have any question, you may ask.