Now, this is of a little different genre, title as you can see the identification of unicorn and cult object. Now those who are not familiar, I will be showing them, and now these are the seals. How many of them? Again, mount of evidence. Detailed speculation, big evidence. Ok? Unlike others, where we have small evidence and lot of speculations. So, how many seals of this kind? Lots of them. Where? Everywhere. (You talk of any, ya, this can be circulated).
These are the kind of seals. This is a national museum sample. These are the kind of seals, thousands of them lying everywhere in all the Harappan sites, which I had just now showed you previously. Lothal, Dholavira, Mohenjo-Daro, Harappan, Kalibangan, Banawali, Rakhigarhi, you name a place and these are there. What are they? Some bull like animal standing in-front of some staff like object. Now this is the description. This is general description. Now what is that bull like animal? It is generally called unicorn. Why? Because it has a single horn. People started taking cues from this. Somebody said it is later called as unicorn as a convention people started thinking this is a real animal or so on. We will discuss it later.
And then this object. What is this object? Well very interesting, the other evidence is even mightier interesting. There are other animals. You can see four of them. What are they? Bison, rhino, buffalo and tiger. In very arid zone, very interesting. We have rhino and, these are all animals of real good jungles. And then, what are they associated with? They are associated also with an object. And if you can see the object and if you are not tended to a cow, aapne go palan nahi kiya toh aap ko nahi samaj mein aayega, woh naad hei woh. Charniya jismein khila rahe dhe woh iss pashuvom ko. What are the animals which are being fed? A Rhino? A Tiger? A bison, buffalo? And buffalo is also a wild animal. It is not a domesticated animal yet. Remember and now all these animals are being fed and the other bull which we saw before, it is interestingly standing in-front of something. Ok.
Now this is the cue. And this is not a scanty evidence. What are the proposals of scholars already? Let’s see, this is unicorn they say, it’s a very interesting suggestion, in fact we have banked upon this. This was the first lead. They say it is an Auroch. Now, this is an extinct animal and Bos primigenius and it is just an Aurochian profile view. If you can see the similarity. It what happens is, when this animal is seen in a profile, in the side view, it is a very beautiful picture of this animal, that the horns overlap. Only one horn is seen on the side, but of course there are some diehard people and they started believing because some Greek writer has said, that Theseus has said that there was a horn some deer like animal with single horn in India. So they said, Nahi! Nahi! Unicorn must have been a real animal. Ok. That kind of a thing and then we will prove that this cannot be, this is untenable.
Now what about the cult object? This is called cult object, actually they have given the name. They already, what I am saying is they anticipated that there is a cult, there is ritual, of which this object is an icon. Now this is ivory, ivory piece, many independent. This is the same one that was in front of that bull, remember. Now many people thought of many things. The lastly we see Mahadevan. Now, Mahadevan is a very, a great Indian scholar working in the script actually and he suggested that this is a soma filter. But preferably never went to some Soma Yaga. That is the problem. We don’t want to know Vedic rituals, even if we want to talk of Vedas and the best is of course never talk of Vedas. That is the strategy, that all this Harappan scholars have taken. They assumed that this is, Harappans are pre Vedic. So never looking Vedas. Marshall declares it often in his book. We did not search for such a ritual in Vedas at all.
But then unfortunately, you missed the truth and those who missed that truth, pay the price, that is the thing. Simple rule. So now, this wild animals, they already knew that this is funny, right? Wild animals also said it with manger, it simply means that this is a ritual because in no right senses, person in right senses would believe that wild animals are fed in a manger or a feeding trough in an ordinary life. So this is not ordinary life. So what it must be? it must be some funny kind of, you know, some jadoo etc., So these must be some ritual, some, they thought, they believed, ki yeh sabh Kuch Devi puja, because they thought ki Devi puja is before Vedas. Though of course Vedics believed that all the Devi puja and Shiva puja comes out of Veda. But the Europeans don’t believe like that. They say, this Shiva Puja and Devi Puja was all adopted by Vedics when they came to India, when they defeated this Dravidas Etc. etc. blah..blah.
So now, but then we don’t have any that kind of an approach. We want simply, we want to analyze whether such visible, iconographic element, do they suggest anything in any literature in the world, or any practice in the world. That is the challenge. So now we analyze the statistics of these seals. It is very interesting statistics. If you see unicorn bull, how many of them have been found? More than 1200 and without any exceptions they are always with the same cult objects. Very funny. Wherever you find it, if it is thousands of kilometers apart you’re finding them and then they are believing that these are some, you know, funny. They are believing that these are some trader’s seals as if it was some East India company or something having offices everywhere, and it is officers everywhere. Everybody is having the same seal. 1200 seals out of the total 1700 seals. 1200 seals are of the same type. Same, they are always with the unicorn bull. This unicorn bull is always with the cult object.
Now if you see the other seals, we get to a rule, this is how science goes right? We analyze the data and we come at a statistical rule. What is it? Unicorn is associated with cult object and wild animals are associate with manger. Now we say does this signifies any ritual? Does any literature in the world explain this rule? That is the challenge. Now this is it. You have Urus bull is sacrificed probably. Ya? I’ll assume that and then wild animals like bison are fed. The feeding trough is meant for feeding, probably. What should it be? Marshal sees a ritual, Yes. But which one? But he says no no etc., I already said that and then they are still at a loss to explain and we have arrived at a conclusion, within a day of seeing the evidence. The first day I went to central archeological library and I saw this, they have a corpus, 3000 photographs they have together in 3 volumes. Not available as so, so I went to the librarian and I was like, my eyes were open. I asked “what is this?” This is known to me. Not known to others but known to me.
And then I verified with my friends and then this is result. What is the
Yupeshu Gramyanpashuninyunjanthi Arogyeshv aranyaan dhaarayanthi.
This is the signature of Ashwamedha,
Yupeshu Gramyanpashuninyunjanthi Arogyeshv aranyaan dhaarayanthi.
This is actually sentence of Veda, I’ve not made it up. This is the sentence which fulfills all the features which we just now pointed out in that statistical analysis. How is it? Well that is what I am here to explain. If you will bear with me. Whenever you see somebody doing, like you see this gold coin. Whose it is? Samudragupta’s. What does it show? An animal standing in front of a tree, you know? What is it? It is Ashwamedha coin. It is Ashwa that is standing in front of a Yupa. Now these are the two words you have to remember. Yupa is that sacrificial bed, to which the animal is to be held. Only ceremoniously, it is not to be tied actually, but it is just to be held there. And then you compare it with the unicorn bull, the so called.
Now once we do this, what is the cult object? Is it the Yupa? That’s when the question arises. Let me show you the similarity. It has 3 distinct features invariably. Whatever that object called cult object, it has 3 parts, iconically very well demonstrated, they are the hat like portion, then there is a staff and then there is a cup like portion in between. Actually they are the Chashala, Yupa and Svaru. Anybody who is interested in this Vedic rituals, these can be explained, this can be still performed. All these rituals can still be performed in principles. Of course nobody would spend or there is time for such superstitious thing. Just to assume others. I’m not saying these rituals are being performed in Harappa. Remember. You will remember this because I will need to explain this iconography later.
What is this? This is s Kaushambi punch marked silver coin, found by G R Sharma in 1956. It was in the lowest layer, it was formed along with the Shenajithi, which is identified as a Naramedha. Because he found some skulls of human beings, he thought this is a man slaughter, man sacrifice. But actually it was not. It was actually Ashwamedha only. But he never understood the ritual. In fact this book is, half of the book is divided to Ashwamedha ritual, but again in a modern way he didn’t actually understand the ritual. Now what happens is this punch mark silver coins which they have addressed to what, 7 century BC. Of course that is a, date, as I said, it is to be challenged. This is actually having all the Harappan, you can see those elements, you can see that what the so called Nandipad and the Swastika, of course is most famous and Indradhvaja which is nothing the Yupa, the same Yupa, and then there is a Gaja which is also a Harappan icon and then what we see is the Southern Indian temples, they have this tradition of what we call Dhvajasthamba and in front of it is a Baliharanapeetha. Of course people just put rice on it. But actually it is an Agamic adaptation of Vedic Yaga where the temple stands for the Avaniya, and that is yupa and that is the pashu.
And then we have this rock memorials found in near Kota. This is Moukhri kings. Again dated falsely by them as 3rd century BC. But they are again in the 11th century BC or some 7th or 8th century BC and then what we see there is of course an inscription which is readable, very clear. It is Thrirathragarkha. Garkhathrirathra yaga has thousands cows as Dakshina and 4 brothers they performed one after the other, five brothers, sorry and the fifth one is missing and four rock Yupas were erected. In fact what did appears is whatever Yupas you find in India, all these pillars, you know rock pillars, they originate in the Vedic tradition. It is the Yupa which is actually made of tree and then it doesn’t last. So what people do is, in the need to return their memories for long time, unlike the Vedics, vedics are like, their life is like on the water, they say “paani ki lakkeer”. But these people they want their memorials you know, they are more like the Asuras. They want to have big big temples etc., so instead, but Yagas don’t have temples. Yaga vanishes. Nothing remains of a Yaga except that “Chithi” which is underground and then what happens people started using rock Yupas to memorate their yagas. So now these are just secondary elements. And now let us compare the unicorn. We talked about the Yupa.
Now let us talk about that unicorn. Now editors of this corpus they suggested as they said was Bos primigenius. But do they have any picture of Bos primigenius? Very interestingly we have these Babylon, the wall of Babylon has 250 of such bulls. And they are very big pictures, six feet large and how big is, have you seen? 1 inch. It is 1inch x 1 inch icon. And we have this six feet big wall type sculpture and you can see the remarkable similarity of these, you look at the tail, look at the genital area, look at the forward sloping horn and look at the single ear. Ok? These are the similarities.
We will soon talk of the dissimilarities. But in between there is a counter proof to those people who believe that it is a real animal with a single horn. We are showing a Sumerian cylinder seal again from 3000 BC period and what is it showing? If you already remarked. It is a herd of cows with the same single horn. These are cows, mind you, there are all females and they have calves in between and there is s hut showing that this is a domesticated herd of Taurian cattle and the same single ear, same single horn. It shows that this is a iconic fashion prevailing throughout the world. If you go to scales of France, you go to scales of India, everywhere you see the same depiction of this animal, because it is a distinct feature of that animal. So this is not a unicorn, this is Bos primigenius.
But is it really Bos primigenius completely? We will talk about it. Let us compare it with Urus. This is how the real Urus looks. What is the difference? If you have already noted, look at the neck, look at the saddle. It doesn’t fit. Why? It is iconic representation. It is ultimately a seal made by somebody with an interest. So what is it? If you see the Harappan tablet below, that is the clue. If you see the Harappan tablet, the same Harappan people are making that Urus bull. It is tablet 8176A. And the Urus is remarkably same as the real Urus. But the icon of Urus is not same. So what is it? It is actually a composite. They are very fond of composites. Harappan icon artists are very fond of composites. It is amply proven by the data.
Now look at the things. The saddle and the mouth and the neck, elongated, decorated neck. These three things, when I put it in my ritualistic knowledge, I understand that they are actually showing an Ashwa and that Ashwa is minute. Is it Equus caballus? No, it is Bharatiya Ashwa. What is that Bharatiya Ashwa? Just see how it looks and the people said, in Harappans, they don’t have any chariots. They have a chariot and I agree it is toy chariot, it is a copper chariot. Now who would say it is not a chariot?
And then we have this Onager. Look at it and this is a tablet. It is called procession tablet and what is the feature of this Ashwa, People might remind this but it need to be stressed that in fact is a counter evidence of Ashwa. If people want to show any invasion they should show this 34 ribbed Ashwa in the mainland of so called Aryans. The honors lies with them. They should show Ashwa there. And they won’t be able to show. They all have 36 ribbed Ashwa already there. So what we are saying is the 34 ribbed Ashwa, which is plain mentioned in Veda. For everything else, Veda is pramanam, then why is not this Veda pramanam for you. It reads there, you know.
Chathushthrithadvajino devabandho vankrirashwasya swadhithir samethi
This is there in Rig Veda, This is there in Yajur Veda, all Shakhas are there, nobody can later blah..blah. Nothing doing, it is all there. It is 34 ribbed Ashwa and there are very other very interesting things here. This is Prashrunga, Avashrunga, what is now, where does the Veda come to? Which is this animal? I am saying Bos primigenius but what does Veda, does it has a name for it? Otherwise how am I going to relate it? Yes. Vedas have a name for it. Not only it is a name, it is a definite description of this animal. It is a semi wild, Na hi vaishya gramyo na aaranyaya: gomrigaha. The name is Gomriga and it is the 11th of the cattle. There is a list of 11 cattle types and you can verify all these evidences and in fact, there is a description of this Gomriga. It confirms that this is actually the Indian Urus. This is not Bos primigenius but this is actually Bos namadicus. And this Bos primigenius namadicus has it been proven by archaeological evidences? Yes.
This is Banerjee 1976 finding its evidence in Susunia, Mochapal all the way up to Bengal and then the same Kaushambi G.R Sharma in 1956, the same Shyenchiti also had a lower mandible of this Bos namadicus and nobody related it. In 1956, he is finding Shyenchiti and Ashvamedha avashesha in Kaushambi and he is finding a Bos namadicus lower mandible there. People, they dated it to 3rd century, 7th century BC. But that is their misfortune.
Now what is the Ashwamedha etc.? I can explain it, those if you desire what is this Ashwamedha etc. but then, this is how the yaga is to be done. This is the sacrificial plot and then we have 21 Yupas. 21 pegs are there and the central peg has Ashwa Gomriga Yupa. I want to explain now why that composite Ashwa is there. Why not purely Ashwa? Why not purely Gomriga. The reason is Ashwamedha, you might have heard of Ashwamedha, but then you would be knowing that there is Ashwa in Ashvamedha. Isn’t it? But no, it is not as simple as that. Actually, the Ashwa is accompanied by many many other animals, the most important of them is Ashvasthoopa rogomrigamithipraaja pathyaa thanagnishta aalabedha and the same treatment is given to the Gomriga as is given to the Ashwa.
What is that treatment, I’m not sharing many details. Well, the other animals are covering the horse and then I’m basically going to explain, ah, well there is one more curious tablet for you. So do you see this tablet- H180. Now you see the right portion of it. What is it? It is some human inverted figure and in between the, say legs, you find a small creature. What is it? Marshall did explain it in a very funny way, but no, actually it is not. It is Ashwamedha’s signature.
Again I will not explain much. People say, Harappans don’t show any signs of dual. You can see, he is holding a sword and why? Why the same tablet is having on this side that and that side that. So well we are explaining that and well that is Ashwamedha again. And then these are the things, these are all secondary evidences. Well someday I can explain if you really want me to, or you give me an opportunity and then these are all supported by strong internal evidences and this is the Ashvamedha.
Ah, what is it? This is Kalibangan 119 tablet. It’s actually terracotta graffiti. It’s a terracotta piece which is having a very funny picture on. It is a graffiti, two sides, both sides have a graffiti that is the one that, you see, this is how you show right? This you see, is the famous Hatnikal Pashupathy. I will not explain Pashupathy here, actually it is not Pashupathy, at all. It is the Yajamana king and this picture I’ve drawn here. What is it? It is a funny picture you know. There is a shrouded figure, and this fellow, some human figure is holding some string and tying some string on the neck and pulling. Do you know what is it? Those who have not studied the rituals will never be able to fathom what it is. Nowhere in the world, in no sacrifices in the world is an animal given this treatment and there is a whole of sentence describing this treatment. It is called,
shyamoolena ashwam sounyapayanthi spandhyan giridharan pashoon
Ok? That is the procedure of sacrifice. Anyway, this is another very interesting evidence. What you see here is, do you see this animal? This is accompanying that Babylonian world. 250 bulls had shown right? These animals are accompanying that wall and these are contemporary of the Apostle Denial of Old Testament and he killed this animal in the end. This is the dragon. This is the dragon of the Hebrews and Greeks and this is called Sirush by the Babylonians and we have an interesting copper tablet in Harappa. It is not exactly similar, but the remarkable feature is, it has a long neck and they wanted to show something which look almost like a mouth, but you can see it, it is not actually. It is a tail.
And then there is a remarkable description of this animal, not in ground, on the sky. And that is interestingly called Draco. This animal of Veda, what Veda describes, it describes an animal called Shishumara, near the pole star of that time, of 3000 BC if you remember from other lectures which has happened here. In 3000 BC, the pole star was Alpha Draco, which was the tail star of this constellation. It is called Abhaya Chathurtham.
Yasmay namstha shirodharmomoordhanam…
We do it every day, I’ve been doing it last 30 years. I’ve been praying, I’ve been searching where that Dhruva is. But it is not there. I was searching for this Shishumara, described uniformly by all the Vedic text but it is not there. It is only recently I understood, it is not there because the pole star has shifted. So presently what we see as the Ursa Minor is and having on its tail the Polaris you know, the North polestar. Actually this was the constellation, I am not showing the constellation here. It is famous. You can always verify. It is called the constellation of Shishumara and the animal has lot of description in Veda. It was a living, surviving animal in the Vedic times, but in the Harappans times it is definitely extinct. That is why they have a speculative picture. The animal that they have not seen but they need to show because of the ritualistic procedures, they are showing with some imaginary form, you can see the similarities and that’s what you do, bear with it. These are all little speculations in lot of evidence.
Ashvamedha, in picture, its showing the Gomriga. For wild animals, it is showing the other seals. In ashvamedha, 21 Yupas are there and on Yupas they have the domestic animals and in between the Yupas they put the wild animals and there is the list of 300 wild animals as big as from the elephant to the mosquito and you are supposed to keep them in nets like mosquito etc., the birds, then the crocodile in the boats and the fishes are there, they have tiger. So there is a list of 300 animals which should be kept in between the Yupas.
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