What is nation? Who defines it? This is defined by European thinking. What is the idea of sovereign state? In 1648 treaty of peace of Westphalia occurred. How many of you know about Westphalia? Ok. In fact, this is one of the dogma of the church. Europe church first attached itself with Roman Empire. It was Roman Catholic then divided into Orthodox Church, Eastern Church, Bishop of Rome. When Roman Empire disintegrated church became power in itself which held power on different kings, but powerful kings rebelled. After that reformation started like protestant reformation of Martin Luther. Then war happened, one 30 yrs war and one 80 yrs war. In Europe wars are going on b/w diff factions, some are b/w roman and catholic, some are b/w diff political groups. Main basis is when schism occurs in monopolistic religion, what is monopolistic religion? Fundamental tenet of Abrahamic religion is, there is only one way. And everybody is in error, satanic is bound for hell. There is no salvation outside the church. Church build heresy. Who knows heresy?
Firstly, church said that bible is the base and then said that interpretation is also that which we do. Root word of heresy is to make choice. So, to choose for oneself was crime, you could be punished to death for choosing how to read text. It’s not just that it is bible and you have to follow it, you can’t not interpret it because church’s interpretation is only valid interpretation. Church was basically the political organ in Roman Empire. So lot of corruption, crime, murders were routine in church. So Martin Luther challenged on the basis of biblical authority. He says that bible is the main authority. Protestantism is the fundamentalist movement. Fundamentalism means you are going back to fundamental of bible. :ot of the evangelist movement today are actually protestant.
So it is not like one is open minded v/s other. Church says that we have got authority because Saint Peter has established church. We have apostolical authority. What pope says is infallible. Protestants are saying we don’t accept pope’s authority. What is written in book is infallible. They both are rigid and fundamentalists, but have different views and each think that other is wrong and so going to be in hell. It’s not like one Christian sect is saying that other sect is right. So, there was a huge war which continued for decades. Really this is the starting.
Then they later had to invent secularism. Because they had no notion of plural society. So they had to at least sliver of diversity. In any case treaty of Westphalia occurred, in it idea of sovereign state emerged.