So, like this Africa got divided. South & Central America. We will not go in every single country, but it has very interesting story. A document named papal bull is released in 1493 named ‘Inter caetera’. ‘Doctrine of discovery’ promulgated through it. How many of you know about ‘doctrine of discovery’? It is very important. This is the basis of colonization of Americas and really of the world. What papal bull says? Although papal bull is related to local politics, but they talk about theological basis which is “Christian gods own the earth”. And non-Christians are squatters that is illegal occupants. Either convert them to Christianity or kill them. Only 2 options are there.
When Spaniards reaches there, show papal bull and claim whole land. Natives see them astonishingly that what is this paper? who are you people? but Spaniards ask where is your paper? Natives replied- ‘land will always be there even after we die so how can we own land’. Because theology justifies, genocide can be justified. How can general people be involved in genocide? 100 million people were killed in America over generations? How can you make them genocide? Tell them it is from God. It is from the authority of God and you are doing a good thing. Either they are Satanic, so they have to be killed or they have to be converted. In either case you are doing god’s work. This is the basis.
So, they draw a line on the globe literally. Papal bull the Spanish king authorized Spanish to colonize these areas. ‘Doctrine of discovery’ has been cited in US Supreme Court for justifying occupation of native lands, as natives can claim their land. So, doctrine has been given legal basis. Portugal was also a catholic country. So, left of line, was given to Spain, while right, to Portugal. That’s why Spain didn’t reach India while Portugal did. Spain conquered most of Americas except for Brazil. Brazil, because line was resettled slightly leftwards. So, Portugal got a part of Brazil. That’s why Brazil speaks Portuguese whereas other South American countries speak Spanish. So, this is the basis of colonization.