Let’s see Africa and Middle East a bit. If you see Africa in 1500 AD, there were few empires but now only negligible political boundary match with present boundaries. Only a little Ghana or one or two more countries match. Rest of Africa’s map has changed. How did it change? How many of you has listened about 1885’s Berlin conference? 1, 2 ok. So, scrambling of Africa was going on. What does scramble for Africa means? European countries were involved in colonizing, so they decided to scramble Africa. Except Ethiopia & Liberia and boundary of all African nations were decided b/w 1885 to 1899 in Europe in a conference where no African was present. Entire African map was cutout between European powers. 13 European countries; USA and Ottoman Empire assembled, put map on wall, this picture and decided that you take this, I take this.
Many times using ruler drew straight line like this and divided this side for u, that side for me. No concerns, no awareness for the local traditions. For the local tribals, ethnic groups for all of that. No care for that. These decided that how will the Africa’s shape. Because of that conflicts are going on even now in Africa because these are illogical boundaries and they have cut them from natural roots.
One more thing which is worth seeing is like in Rwanda. What they did was, first of all, colonization used to take place by physical force, second colonization was of mind, in second colonization you were given new identity. Your history used to be written. Like in Rwanda, identity of Hutu and Tutsu were written. They were created as warring factions while in older times their boundaries were malleable. Not much fixed marriages, exchange were all between them, earlier. But as they wrote antagonist history, the result is, there was a huge genocide in Rwanda. In which Hutu and Tutsus fought for blood.