School education ensures us to have a mental picture of India map and we are capable of locating where is Punjab or Tamil Nadu. Yet we do not have a mental picture of where are those janapadas (kingdoms) mentioned in our Veda, Ithiāsa, Purāanas are located. An ordinary person is unable to locate where is Pānchala the kingdom of Pānchali or where is Gāndhara, the kingdom of Gāndhari. Yet there is enough information to create a digital map of Bhāratavarsha in our ancient texts.
This talk is about familiarizing the reader to recognize the janapadas mentioned in the Mahābhārata both the popular ones like Kuru, Pānchāla and rare references of Chīna, Darada and Kāmboja.
Jijith Nadumuri Ravi is the founder of the Website AncientVoice which contains 23500 pages on Mahabharata, Ramayana, the four Vedas and Vishnu Purana. It contains ancient India maps, analysis articles, lineage maps, the full text of English translation translation of these texts in Wikified form, Read More.
The Yamuna is there at the central River, which is actually dividing this Kuru, this Kuru East and Kuru West. So Kuru East basically is the Western Uttar Pradesh and the Hastinapur – Meerut area. So that is the, this particular area and towards the east of Kuru is Panchala, which is, there is currently also, there is a city note, Kampilya and Ahichatra also is there. The names are not changed, each of this particular city win in which Parva of the Mahabharata is present. So 001 means it is mentioned in Vanaparva. The Vanaparva is a third Parva. So like that, so you can actually, like for example, if you have this particular index, you can know like in which city or which place is mention in which parva and you can go into that particular Mahabharata Parva and then look at detail about it.
I am currently working as the creative director in Wipro, but formerly I was working as a scientist in ISRO, that was from 2001 to 2006 and I took part in the Chandrayaan mission as developer for creating that orbital dynamics, that is a Chandrayaan studies phase, which was actually later turned into that actual mission of the Chandrayaan. So that is one aspect of it and one more thing is, the Mahabharata studies that I have undertaken. It has brought some connection with this show, because they were the first people who have studied the Saraswati River using the satellites. So that was my initial data for me, for introduced into the Mahabharata studies.
So I am just giving a brief introduction to Mahabharata, which most of us will be knowing. This is the introductory sloka “Narayanam namaskrtya naram caiva narottamam devim sarasvatim caiva tato jayam udirayet”. So because it is a traditional view that whenever you initiate the studies of Mahabharata you need initiated with this, this particular sloka, which is the living salutation to the great personalities, Narayan you know Krishna, and Naram is Arjun and that he is, it is again his synonym Narottama, and then Saraswati, this the symbolization of knowledge and river Saraswathi “tato jayam udirayet”. actually it is another version of it, where the Vyasa comes as the fourth person, whom to give salutation.
So Mahabharata, basically you have to consider it as a knowledge to reservoir. Actually I don’t consider a monolithic, monolithic book because it has thoughts of various aspects like geography is one specialization area for me. But I should tell everybody that, if you consider it as kind of some, something like a geographical chronological text, it doesn’t make any justice to Mahabharata. It said, it is basically a text from Dharma, Artha, kama and moksa, off course and in that, my focus area is some kind of a scientific study. So I have to tell this before initiating any of these studies about geography in Mahabharata. So “dharma arthe ca kame ca mokse ca bharatarsabha yad jhasi tad anyatra yan nehasti na tat kva cit”.
So everything about “dharma arthe ca kame ca mokse ca” is there in Mahabharata. So, assume there is a some kind of, in future the entire civilization get completely destroyed, you can actually reestablish Dharma, using Mahabharata alone because it contains everything including the names of the locations, that is what I my point of study but it also includes Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksa. So you can actually spring up again Dharma and Dharmic tradition that just by having Mahabharata. So this is a comparison of Mahabharata Parva’s. So you can see the Santhi Parva and you can see something like a big sphere, if you considered something like a planet that it’s a very big. Some of the Parva’s you can see the Swargarahana Parva is it’s very small, so it is in terms of the number of verses, I just created this visual, so that given understand, this pictorial representation of Mahabharata, how it looks like? So, some of the Parvas are very big, much bigger than Ramayana and some others are very short. So when you are going through analysis you geographical data or chronological data you should be able to you have to understand this particular picture and then the blue color is the Harivamsa it’s a appendix of Mahabharata, but it’s also included as part of Mahabharata to consider that it is a more than 100 thousand verses.
And this is another slide I you normally use in our all the talks on Mahabharata, to give another perspective of how Mahabharata, the size of Mahabharata compares with the other text, you can see the Ramayana the green, the, the green color, here this is Ramayan, This is Mahabharata and you can see other Puranas and this is the Vedas, four Vedas. So this is the size of map, just give an example a given understanding of what is the size and then we come to Vyasa.
So actually this is again kind of, no it’s not a Geofield kind of view of Vyasa. But when you look at whether Vyasa, as a researcher on the chronology or the geography of Mahabharata, he’s a great scholar and ascetic in the Bhrigu Lineage for I sure and I was a star, his forefathers and basically his forefathers like Vasistha, they are Vedic seers and he is basically having that contribution to the Kurukshetra war narrative and you just look at Mahabharata that verses in the Bhishma Parva and everything where the Vyasa have a kind of a discussion with Dhritarashtra. He is himself expressing as a expert on the geography and then he talks about another various kingdoms etc, and that is my main primary subject of my study. And it is this maybe not you belong to how the Mahabharata can be considered as growing from 8800 versus to 24000 to 100000 like there is the dialogue between Sanjaya and Dhritarashtra, that is the core. Then you have a Vaisyampayana and Janamejaya having a discourse and then again aggressive Sauti and Saunaka are having a discourse and these are all separated with lots of time and a lot of people have a dispute on the number of verses. I am not going into that details. So now you comes to the core subject of my this talk.
So, that Bharatavarsha maps; so as part of my studies, how it goes is like from the childhood onwards I have, I read this Mahabharata, I heard about someplace like for example Nishadha. So then I heard about Nala and Damayanthi. It’s story is there and Nala is the king of Nishadha. So when I asked my father, where is this Nishadha located. So he said no, that we cannot know right know, it could be somewhere in the North India, somewhere. So, that is where. Like so, the traditional speakers or the readers of Mahabharata, they don’t know, for example, some location where it is. So any kind of question where is Panchala, where is Guru Rashtra, where is Vidarbha, where is Heyaya., nobody is able to answer.
So the narrative is that, they tell the story, they give the narrative, but we are actually don’t know where, know how, means these place names are mentioned. But where are they and that kind of curiosity I have from the childhood onwards. So then I started doing that analysis that was around in 1990’s, somewhere close to 90’s or 80s, there was no computer or anything that I just read about this, I have create map of India like this in the 10th standard. My elder brothers, they have this map of India in a blank chart. So in that I plot that, based on my current understanding I plot that and then since starting from 1993 I got introduced to computers and all then I started creating digital maps and then it becomes a little more bigger, grow it bigger and bigger and finally in 2004 when I was in ISRO, I have created this particular map and this is now published in Wikipedia and my own site, The Ancient Voice.
So here what is basically is that all the knowledge I have acquired for the last 20 years on various locations of the kingdoms, the Janapadas, I have mapped into this particular map. So you can see here, this is the result of my own inquiries on, where are these locations. So some of them will be very familiar to you, the Kuru Rashtra, that is where we are now speaking, I am speaking right now and all of you are here in the Kuru Rashtra, that is the Haryana and the eastern U P, Delhi and all these falls in the Kuru Rashtra and you have east and west. So east is basically, if you look at from the Mahabharata point of view, east is where the Duryodhana and those people were staying and then in the West that is the Haryana region is where the Kuru Jangala, where the Pandavas were living.
So this is the Yamuna there, at the central River which is actually dividing this Kuru, this Kuru East and Kuru West. So Kuru East basically is the Western Uttar Pradesh and the Hastinapur, Meerut area so that is this particular area and towards the east of Kuru is Panchala which is, there is currently also there is a city note, Kampilya and Ahichatra also is there, the names are not changed. So that is the thing and in Kuru and the Hastinapur the name is not changed yet, Indraprasta that is the Delhi, it is still the name is retained and you have. So these much maybe most of people knows. Then there is some kind of darkness or maybe the lacuna here. What there is.. Kosala here, the kosala is the domain of Ramayana you have the kosala here and then the Videha the kingdom of Janaka and the Sita’s Kingdom and what is there in between. So is there any interaction between the Kuru’s and the actual course in the Kosala. Now, the reason is this particular forest called Naimisha. So that sits in between these two particular kingdoms, that is why there are not much in the… but of course, they travel through this Ganga river and then they have some kind of interaction, there is no direct.
So that is in Ramayana, you don’t see anything like Panchala is described as a neighbor of Kosala because this Videha is mentioned as a neighborhood, it is mentioned as the eastern side of Kosala Rashtra, but nothing is mentioned to the west of Kosala because the Naimisha forest is there and only after crossing the Naimisha, they will go to the Bharathas and the Kurus, which is the Panchala and Kuru region. So this kind of information you can get it from this particular map and you have Gandhara here with the Shakuni is rolling and then Kamboja and then the Bahlika because this is the branch of the Kurus, the cousins of Dhritarashtra, basically Shantanu and he has got a brother called Bahlika and Devapi. The elder brother didn’t accept royalty because he wanted to be an ascetic. So he went to the Himalayas and the next brother is Bahlika, he become a ruler of the maternal kingdom. So that is where he stay. That is how Shanthanu got the kingdom of Kuru for himself and he was ruling from here.
So this kind of… and you have Matsyas. Now this is where the Pandavas lived in, in their Ajnathavas and you have to know my primary question I was asking the Nishadha. So here it is there in the Gwalior region and you have another like, there are two kingdoms Nishadha. So it is basically what happens is that, this is a sanskritised name. But there was the Nishadha, you can say, it is ruled by the Ekalavya and there know such such people. But they are ideally means in basically these both kingdoms are the same and when you plot it, you can see that there in almost in the neighborhood. So the Nishidha and Nishadha and there are some connections.
So and then, you have the Avanti and extreme south and like that. So I am just giving you an example of and then, you have the southern part of the same map. So you can see the Kerala, Pandya and Chola, Lanka and then the Kishkindha and then there is.., so this is another important point things like because the Aryan invasion theories will be much uprooted anyway, it’s almost getting uprooted. So it’s like the real name Dravida that is mentioned when it comes in Mahabharata. It is actually referring to a kingdom and the kingdom will lied somewhere in a descent to the Chola, Kanchi and now this Karnataka, Mahishaka and Kishkindha. So it is basically this particular name they have taken and then made all the fuss about Aryan drive and, and everything but actually it is basically a territory and of course there is another terminology because same name can be used for various things.
So apart from being a kingdom it sometimes the Pandya, Chola, Kerala., all those things combined, they call Dravida. But there is a kind of conflict between the Dravida and the other northern kingdom just like what, what the Britisher’s or the Max Mueller used to say. No, it was nothing like that. All the kingdoms were, if some of them were, trying for domination, they were trying for getting the power and so. But there are no special, no specially something like the Dravida were fighting against the north and the North was fighting against the south or anything like that. So that was the map I have plotted in 2004 and then this is some more detail analysis I have and then expanded the map with a little more, higher resolution, so that I can plot the cities.
So this map was almost ready by 2008 and then, you can see like I have each of these particular kingdoms, the capital city or some other city all those things I have plotted here. For example Trigarta, it has got a capital Prasthala. So that is currently Jalandhar and then the Madra desh know the kingdom of the maternal uncles of the Pandavas, the Madri, Madri’s Kingdom and Shalyas Kingdom, that is the Madra desh. He got Sakala or the Sialkot that is in Pakistan and you have got Rajavasa, that is Kamboja cities capital that is Rajouri, that is where the terrorists are now fighting with the Indian military and you have got the Gandhara with its on.
In the cities like Pushkaravati and then the one more was there Thakshasila. Yes, same name; it always have the same name and we got this, the Kekaya where the Kaikeyi was know, the Kaikeyi of Ramayana and then in Mahabharata also Kekaya is mentioned because some of the allies of Pandavas came from here, the kekaya brothers and, so this is a little more expanded map and here, this is a central western region here. So you can see so many other kingdoms mentioned here. Some of them like Kunti. Kunti is basically a name of a kingdom, but the princess of that Kingdom also have that same, this just like Panchali. So the Panchala is here and Panchali got that name from the kingdom, similar way Kunti got that name from here and you have the Heyaya and you can see the Mahishmati maybe in the next slide it will be very clear, which was a Rajamouli’s capital. I mean so, that Mahishmati was a kingdom, mentioned as a kingdom in that movie, Rajamouli’s movie. But actually it is the capital of the Heyaya kingdom. That is how Mahabharata and Ramayan, even Ramayan is also mentioned it like that and similarly there are other kingdoms and this is the easternmost point mentioned in Ramayan and Mahabharata, mostly in Mahabharata.
That is the Lauhitya and it is the name of the Brahmaputra river. So the masculine name of Brahmaputra is not mentioned in Mahabharata or Ramayan. but the actual name for this river was Lauhitya which is the reddish color, because of that it is called Lauhitya and then you have this other kingdoms like the Bengal region right, the Suhma and Vanga. Vanga is what the Bengal is like that say the same name and the Suhma and Prasuhma basically this Odra. All these are Bangladesh area.
Then Anga desh which is in Bihar, southern Bihar of southwards to the Ganga river and then Magatha also the southern Bihar region, then Kashi is the oldest city and you have this southern part of it. So there is some kind of updation I have done in a very recent maps, so that Dandaka forest I have almost made it somewhere here, this particular empty area, the area is empty basically because there is it was a big forest here and that is a Dandaka forest and currently there is one name which continue, that is Dantewada that is actually a remnant of the Dandakaranya name and this much area, right, you can see this much more entire area, it is nameless, is the entire area as a big forest and that is the Dandaka forest and the core, core part of it was like Dantewada and the Rama has traveled through like this and then the southern part of it and then you can see that this southern part also little more in detail and what you are seeing here is the number of kingdoms.
I have studied in total whether it’s are coming around the 50 to 150 and I have actually still not completely plotted all this 150 because huge data and I mean the process of updating which much bigger resolution map almost the 4k text, 4k means I think you understand, four zero, you know it’s 4000 x 4000 that kind of a 4k text, actually because no other texture can handle this much amount of data. So it will be a very huge kind of a map with very small detail just like it’s almost like a much more detail than the current India map, a political map of India with all the cities and it should be much more detail because we have that much amount of data, we have that much amount data that even the current political map of India don’t have, but this is the number of kingdoms, Janapathas was in Sanskrit it is they are talking in Mahabharata the terminology used is the Janapdhas for the kingdoms.
So this is the kind of data that we have and I classified it into another southern province northern province and some non-Kshatriya Kingdom’s and one more point I have to make it’s like there is a chronology into that. I will talk on it if I have got some more time . So not all the kingdoms were actually, know, emerged at the same time because there is a kind of evolution to it. But it said how unfortunate is a big topic to discuss, but I have to say that no all that all this particular number of kingdoms where at one’s not present because some of them were older some of them got beware into another Kingdom. So it’s just a comparison of the list of kingdoms and this is represented in Mahabharata as if Sanjaya is talking to the Dhritarashtra about all these things at the same time. but there is a possibility that this is again a question of because different scholars will have a different approach that all the schemas were not at once present at the same time. Some of them were later.
And this is another like study, all these particular names of villages, towns and cities and this is an analysis data like each of this particular city, in which parva of Mahabharata it is present, so 001 means it is mentioned in Vana parava, the Vana parva is a third parva. So you can actually like, for example, if you Parva and you can go into that particular Mahabharata parva and then look at detail about it and you have the villages, towns, cities and it’s a continuation and of course this is the name of the site, where you can actually see this data and so that is about the cities, villages, there’s towns, capital cities, pilgrim centers and Asramas., everything you have in that previous list and this is another that you much more than a geographical manner, like it’s not political so you have the mountains, rivers and lakes and geographical regions. So there is a lot of interesting verses in Mahabharata, basically it’s a Bhuvanakosa. That is a conversation between Sanjay and Drutharashtra and if this is an initial kind of a Athiyaya, chapter in Bhishma parva of Mahabharata, where he talks first about the geography, the Janapatha etc of Bharat Varsha and only after that the Mahabharata war narrative starts, the Kurukshetra war. Like that Mahapada war narrative starts with Bhagavath Gita.
I think you know what “dharma-ksetre kuru-ksetre samaveta yuyutsavah mamakah pandavas caiva kim akurvata sanjaya”. That is a starting point of the Kurukshetra war narrative. All these things is actually discussed before that the geography and even chronology also discussed which some of other scholars like, Nilesh oak and Narahari Achar using for dieting Mahabharata, the chronology also. Tey are discussing and then geography also discussed. So this is the geography discussion part, everything the author all of this information is like laid out in Mahabharata as if it is a conversation between Sanjaya, the minister of Dhritarashtra and with Dhritarashtra.
So he’s talking about this “Mahendro malayah sahyah suktiman rksavan api vindhyas pariyatras”. So these are the main Kulaparvatah’s of Bharata varsha. So you can see Malaya is the southern part of these Sahya, the Western Ghats, so it is in Kerala and this Sahya is the northern part and the bridge is the, the gap is the Palakkad now. This is where you can travel for example, people of Kerala travel to Bangalore without crossing mountains, through this pass. So this is the Palghat pass, so it divides the Malaya and the Sahya. Sahya is like very big line from this particular point of Kerala up to this much point in Maharashtra this Sahya, then Vindya is like this the silver central mountain and then Pariyatra is the mountains western mountains in Rajasthan. Then Suktimat, it is the Chedi, the kingdom of chedi surrounded by suktimat mountains, chedi is a Bundelkhand region in Riksha mountains. So Jambavan is mentioned as coming from Riksha, Riksha parvata jambavan and know the oldest vanara and then you have Mahindra mountain that is in Orissa where Parasurama was doing the Thapasu.
And this is again the data like a different mountain however it is mentioned in each parva and again this is a big data this is the number of rivers mentioned in Mahabharata and I have not even identified all of this because it’s a huge information, maybe only 30 percent of the rivers I have an identification, remaining is without any identification. But I am just listing out a data and once I have completed identification, I can actually add into that highly detailed 4k map, but still there currently it is still, it’s not possible except few like Lauhitya, that I have mentioned earlier. But you may have to, maybe refer some other Puranas and extensively for the Kalidasas another Sanskrit text in the during the time of kalidasa and so then only we can actually identify it completely.
And this is of number of forests, the some of the big forests it like Dandaka and Kamakya vana, all these things are discussed here. And the number of the lakes, around 30 names of lakes and 30 names of forests and these are the regions mentioned it, like Airavat region. For examples, the Airavat region is very interesting. All the descriptions when you try to plot Airavata, you can consider it as Siberia because they mention, the entire year the land is covered by snow and then the duration of the day you know it’s varies from enough 45. What I mean is 90 percent of your days, daylight and the remaining 10 percentage night. At some other time, it is 90 percent night and 10 percent daylight. So every description make it identify with Siberia. So that’s what I am.
Some of the interesting regions, and again this Sanjaya’s description, he talks about the entire world is not Bharatavarsha because he started with Bharatavarsa, all the kingdoms and rivers and lakes, then he talks about the entire world. So some of the interesting facts I am just pointing out, so he is mentioning, it is Sudarsanam, the entire world, there it is mentioning as “Sudarasanam pravaksyami dvipan te kurunandana parimandalo maharaja dvipo sau cakrasamsthitah”. So it is like mentioning about a circular continent and so there is not nothing like a circular continent anywhere, but if you make a polar Azimuthal equidistant projection of the globe, you see the circular, you can see Antarctica becomes a circle there, because that is how, in the pin this particular kind of projection, southern pole will become a circle, then it becomes all the narrative become correct now because then Sudarsanam is this particular Antartic and then you have a ‘Lavanena Samudrea’, it’s anyway salt ocean needs just basically this big ocean, without differentiation and then you have, there is a, this is Pippalas, that is there is two continents which is like a pipal tree and then there are two continents which is like a rabbit – hare; know everything like, everything about this particular description matches with polar Azimuthal equidistant projection.
So what does that means? Do there are during the time of Sanjaya somebody made a map like this? that is what the question comes. But the data points to everything is not exactly pointing to the same only, that is the only reason why it can be true there is no other way you can have a circular Sudarsanam and then he mentioned apart this six mountains, I have tried to identify where is all these, this mountain and seven, seven regions between these mountains this is called Varshas because these are big regions like not just Bharatavarsa, Bharath varsa the entire bharath. So similarly some other Varshas. So this is the plot of these varshas that Sanjaya is mentioning.
So you can see the Bharatha Varsh is in the southern part and there is some mention like it’s a bow shape it will be looking like a Dhanush, know that is what Bharath varsa is about, that is southern and it is the boundaries Himavan and then you heard Himavat Varsha, Himavat Varsha means and it is handed between Hemakuta and Himavan. So you can consider that as a Tibeten region actually, not exactly Tibet, but southern Tibet, where that the Himalayan ranges are drawing up and then you have Harivarsha and that is Tibet, this is like Indus – Brahmaputhra Basin like Himavat Varsha and the Tibet is basically the Hari Varsha and this identification is not this once, multiple times and they are doing a Arjuna Travel that everything this Hari Varsha is identification. Tibet get strengthened again and again and after that this Sveta varsha is there that is like somewhere to the north of Tibet and not the name is Sveta, another is like it’s snow cover basically. that’s why its white colored and you have the Tien Shan Mountains.
Now this is like mounting that region and that is called Nila, Nila mountains and currently if you look at Tien shan mountain and you take any photograph into the bluish color in, you can see that it’s bluish color and then Altai Range there is a Sveta Varsha and even if you currently go and take a photo of this particular range, its whitish in color because of the snow. Hence, end-to-end to the north, you have the Sringavan range. Sringavan range is a sayan range you can identify it. I have identified it based on the geological features, not based on the names. We can’t identify based on the etymology basically.
So and so you are after that Airavata Varsha, there it is again mentioned as the bow shape and you can see and the Siberian region is again like a bow just like here, the bow shaped. So this is the correspondence and whatever the Sanjaya as the geography, he is describing is the Eurasia. Eurasia basically because he is just focusing only from the Kanyakumari towards, just north and till the time he’s at just the polar northern, the ocean so not much conversing about this area, just towards the south of the Bharat Varsha and you can see here a little more detailed map of it. Bharata Varsha is there. Himavat varsha then the mountains which are separating them, there is a Bhadrava Varsha, then Uttara kuru is there and then Ilavrita Varsha this is the area where Pururavas, Urvashi all these people are mentioned in this area.
This is the third concern, this is very central, very sacred region and you Ketumala that is coming into some of the center Asian countries now and this is a central point, this area is considered as the Meru parvata and then in the Meru parvata all these other Parvata’s are joining the Nila Parvat, Tian Shan and this Himalayan mountains., all this comes up joining is really axis mountains. Then Airavata had neighbored as Siberia and you have this another like another map of it, like how this why I am interested is because almost I have got full detail about the Bharata Varsha and somewhat the other regions and focusing on. So maybe I will skip this very, very quickly.
This is like not only the geography how things happens, when it is in motion, motion means somebody is traveling. So there is extensive travelers mentioned in Mahabharata. So you can see this is the big list of it and you know various the Arjuna and the five Pandavas are the main travelers here, just like in the Ramayana, Rama is the traveler. So you can see they have military campaigns, they have Thirtha yathras and then all these things and this is how it is arranged basically. How the travels are classified – that is Rajasuya, Digvijaya, Aswamedha and battles etc. So this is Arjuna’s travels. Arjuna after this incident with the Draupadi and Yudhisthira, he went on a pilgrimage and married Chitrangada, Uloopi.
So this is a circuit, this is a kind of a circular route and this is some alternatives but anyway I am not going into details. This route can have a number based on some data variation that can have alternatives, that’s what I am mentioning here, and these are the Digvijaya’s of Pandu. It is mentioned maybe one of the interesting part I will talk and then I will conclude.
Here you can see this is Arjuna Digvijaya for the Rajasuya and in this particular narrative there is a mentionable China, and you can act basically this, this particular identification of China is based on the relative motion of Arjuna. So in that narrative he is mentioning about after Tukhara he has become to have a kind of neighborhood of Tushara, Tushara means somewhere in the Kashmir northern region, so and then there is China is mentioned and see after that, after the mention, the Arjuna travel he is again mentioned that the China’s came with tribute to Yudhisthira during Rajasuya and then in that list, it is mentioned that lot of woolen and woolen items all these things came from here so it is a cold country the China that is mentioned in Mahabharata is a cold country, that is one thing and it is always mentioned in the Himalayan region and that is how it can be identified, now if you go and search into the Chinese history they will say that their culture and civilization came somewhere close to the Himalayas. So they are matching up. So this is something which is not accepted by the mainstream because they are saying… of course they know the connection between India and China and all the culture and civilization of China came from India, but the word China which is being discussed, described in Mahabharata, not much study has been going into that and the location every aspect of it, but ultimately when you have a kind of combined analysis of Chinese text with the Mahabharata you get more information about it. But this is my location currently is based on, the motion of the traveler narrative how the Arjuna is moving and based on other references in the Mahabharata but China, you can mean located somewhere here in the close to Kashmir area and strangely enough the currently that Chinese have occupied that same region not in Kashmir in the northern northeastern region as their own territory, I don’t know whether they are read Mahabharata but it is some co incidence, I don’t know.
So this is the last you can say the polarization since you have Mahabharata, this Bharata Varsha map you can look at Mahabharata and see which are the countries allied with the Kuru which vested in Pandavas. It’s very easy once you have the data. Then the next thing is this product and you can see this kind of a map emerging. So the main, main kind of source for Pandavas were the southern kingdoms and, this particular bluish color, all this were supporting the Pandavas and what about remaining everything’s about Duryodhanan? Thus he got the eleven akshauhinis and Pandavas was bought from this much area this northern Panchala and Mathsya, Nishada, there is some little bit of North and Sivi and all because their marriage relationship of the Pandavas and southern kingdoms and we have contributed to the army of Pandavas whereas the remaining everything in Bharath Varsha went to Dhuryodhana.
I think that this concludes my talk.