[This talk on “Science of Sound in Hinduism” by Dr. M. G. Prasad was recorded on August 17, 2019 at INTACH, New Delhi. Little did we know that Dr. M. G. Prasad would not live to see his talk live on YouTube. He passed away on Nov 25, 2019. We at Srijan Foundation are deeply saddened by his passing away and dedicate this video as a tribute to his ‘atman’].
Science of sound generally refers to study of vibrations of air particles particularly in the audible frequencies. In Hinduism, the terms such as Naada and Shabda are used. However neither naada nor shabda can be translated directly as sound because Naada and Shabda refer to much more than vibrations of air particles.
In RigVeda, a mantra gives the process of human speech in four stages of which the last stage is audible sound. This talk deals with various aspects of Naada and Shabda and their impact on various aspects such as speech, music and spirituality.
The talk also discusses the relationship of naada and shabda to consciousness.
When I speak, at the mouth level to, two systems should work together in harmony, very important, the biological systems and the psychological systems, the articulation is very important. This pronunciation, is not only in terms of articulation, is very importance, but also at the spiritual practice, why? See, spiritual practice means, there should be some translation that is going in the physical systems also, because spirituality means, its whole thing, mind, body, sprit all the things are integrated. So that means by reciting these, the body get activated in the proper direction, proper orientation and when you produce a Mahaprana Pha, kha, gha, dha. So you are producing with the energy, coming out from the Nabhi, below Nabhi. So when you are all the times saying that we are making conscious effort to bring the energy upward and then it climbs up the whole thing.
Namaste, thank you Srijan foundation and Srijan Talks and thanks for all of you, to be here, make in time in the busy schedule.
“Chaithanyam, sarva bhoothanam, vivritham gagathadmana,
nathabrahma thathanantham adhitheyam upasmahe”.
We salute to that Naada brahma, which is present in every conscious being as consciousness, and that consciousness, which is all forwarding has manifested, as a joyful universe. So we will see the Science of sound in Hinduism and let me start with a statement from a very well known scientist called Sir William Henry Bragg, who in his book “The world of sound” says a very nice and a very introspective way, “we say that we hear a sound, which mean that somewhere or other, an air quiver has been started and has reached our ears. As the life and processes of the world go on, the actions which take place are accompanied by these at tremors, and we live in this world of sound.”
As the fishes live in the world of water, we all live in the world of sound, and that make this topic very, very personal to us and make it equally universal. There is one thing which is both personal and universal, this is the field, and we will see how and why. So saying that sound is all forwarding the ubiquity of acoustics as we see here, is well shown in this beautiful diagram, we have sciences of the earth and the atmosphere where we see the aspects of the acoustic that coming here in the atmosphere around that, and even where put about that, as you can see and then we have the engineering sciences, where in all aspects of engineering aids, personally being trained in the mechanical engineering is doing the acoustics and likewise, civil engineers, chemical engineers, electronic engineering everybody seeks sounds and then human and social sciences, we know that, it part and partial of the fields here. We have the Music, speech and psychology win to life and help sciences. So it’s all forwarding. But these three, we see is in a very close connection between here – the psychology, the speech and the Music. And so we see here.
Now what is the connection between the science of sound in Hinduism, and when our seeking at these Murthi’s, Vigrahas, as we call, we all go to temple and stand in front of the Murthis and most of he Murthis you know is in some acoustic message, that they are giving, and in particular we have the Krishna, who is having the Shanka, which is basically as you heard, is the producing sound even in the Murthi, as you can see, focus the sound is coming only, thinking we have to hear it, and we will come to that aspect of sound also, the sound that which is not heard, which is unmanifest. Then we have the lord Shiva, with drum and the drum as a symbolic medium of production of sound from our human systems, and then off course, we have Krishna’s flute, and flute itself is the representation of our human body and also it has been recognized, the same as we say the magic of flute. Then Rabindranath Tagore in Geethanjali says, make me like a flute of free, to fill of die music. It also a literary sprit as we see, and off course we see the Goddess Saraswati who is playing the Veena, and again the Veena refers to the human body, we will see how.
So we see in all these Murthi’s that there is a dynamic message that is coming through, which is closely connected to what we hear a sound, then we have. So where did we go for the literature, for the science of sound in our Vedic literature. So here, we represented the Vedic literature as an inverted tree, and this is also very symbolic. What we see in the tree outside, as for the roots are below, the branches above. But the reality is the other way, that means, the source of all manifestation comes from above from the invisible; unseen to the manifest; unseen, unmanifest to the manifest and we ourself actually a representation of the inverted tree, because all our thoughts and ideas do come here, and then it gets manifested through our speech and our limbs.
So we are the inverted trees, and that is why the process of meditation the energy, the goal is to go upwards “Urdho urdhamati Urdhoms”, like one of the Tantric course says go upwards, Urdharetham Viroopaksham Vishwaroopaya vaye namo nama ha”.
So that is the symbolism of the inverted, “Urdhathamo Namantha. Sakaham Ashwatham Prahuravyayam chanthansya yasya pananyanya yastham vedha sawetha vith” in chapter fifteen in Bhagavad Gita, Bhagvan Krishna tells that.
So all of these are symbol, symbolic and here we see, when we look at the root, the root as a shed is the source and the source is referred as Brahman, and also we see in the manifestation, the substratum also become, Brahman. So source and substratum is Brahman and this Brahman that we refer as two aspects and two sides of the same of the coin. The Amrita Bindu Upanishad says very clearly that,
“Dhe Brahma nivedi thavye sabda brahmam pranjayathe, sabda brahmam nishnathaha param brahmani yasthathi”.
so there are verily two Brahmans, that every human being has right, has qualification to as five form, every one, no one is excluded in the pursuit of Brahman, true victim of ragging, every one, and in that pursuit there are two Brahmans, one is Sabda Brahman and another is Para Brahman, and Sabda Brahman is dash up to Para brahman. So that is the meaning of this beautiful Upanishad statement.
Then off course we all know the name and form of Brahman is Omkara. “Om iti Brahma”, that iti Upanishads says, Om is brahman, basically it means “Thasya Vachaka Pranava ha”, the name and the form of Brahman is Omkara, it did not an alphabet, but it is a roopa. But when you make it through the assembly of Varna then it become Aa kara, U kara, Ma kara, then also Yogavartika says Isvara Pranavaha. So that also is in the Sabda Brahman, then will began Om, that is the major topic, but to give connection to our main them, as they said Om is name and form of Brahman, Om has five parts, ‘Panchamathrathmaka Pranavaha’. Aa kara, U kara, Ma kara and the Half-moon that we see on the top and then on the top of it we can see the Bindu, which is the origin.
So if you go from the other way, thoughts from the Bindu, then expand, manifest through the moon are the Kalas. Then come to Mu, Uu, Aa. So that is the reverse process. So you can see the involution and evolution going like that. That is why Om is very important. Om is the first descent, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism in addition to Hinduism and recited along with prayers, Vedic chants, rituals, spiritual and philosophical gatherings.
Garbha Upanishadssays in the eight month, the baby in the womb listen to the sound of Om, in the womb, and the very important information then, of course, if you wanted to see the manifested sound of Om, we know that, in the Soham Jaba “hatha rena bhahiriaathi saharena vishath gunaha’, that is why when we are breathing in and out, when we breath out Hakara and then Sakara is taken in, so in that, so when you, so the soham comes there, that the Omkara is the one that connecting the exhalation and inhalation and that is constantly happening, and that is why some of the practices focus on the meditation on the breathing.
Now here the Namarupaya curved about, we did the some interesting comparison, the left one, you see is the Omkara recited, the great yogi, who is my spiritual mentor, spiritual guru, and so when we took that sound, and did the spectral analysis and then took the component, the A’s and the B’s in the Fourier series, then made a plaque of the complex coefficient, A and B we get a complex plaque because the A and B or the amplitude carry constants, frequently it carries right, so and the right side, this is the one, which is published in journal of acoustical society a while ago. One sound produced by Tibetan Lamas and they said it is practiced in many religion and when it is practiced in complex plaque, you can see the form, this is the form that you get. That is similar and also the frequency and component fairly closed by.
So what did it means, says there is a “Vigjana” caused the world science there is the English translation timed up and it doesn’t means exactly same, and the Sanskrit they used the word Vigjana, Vigjana Vigjana, Vigjana does not exactly mean what science means, but we take it as a translation, Vigjana means Vikasitha Janam, one meaning, other meaning its Vishista yoho gnanam, Vigjanam, basically what it is gjana is the destination of the knowledge, that is being there, that is gjana, Vigjana is the process the path which make take you there. So the Rishi’, Rishi means seer, Rishajnane, the one who is seen, seen from the inner most eye, the aesthetes most truth at the world, that is seer, and one the Krish is sees are is there, then the path that Rishi has taken, Rishika, Rishi, Rishi is masculine, Rishika feminine, Rishi or Rishika who has taken and mean there, that path is called Vignjana, that is why the Rishi said, “Vigjanena bhoothannithayanthe Vigjanena nagatha nidhi vanthi, Vigjanam prayam thaviham vihanthethi thath brahmethethi”. So vigjanam is also Brahman, because when you are going towards a goal the path is become the part of the goal, isn’t it, it did not there, we don’t know anything and suddenly we end up in the goal, it never happens, it should not happen, so path itself is like that, so that is vigjana. So we see this interesting the thing, so coming back to the tree again and to see where ever Sabthavijana, Nadhavigjana then we come to the Mantras, the Vedamantras, and creates the Vedamantras are not a metal activity what did it means that, it should not be compared to a literary composition where somebody sites and get inspired in a very emotional way and compose, that is good, but that falls in to the category of Sthaviyan that’s very good also, but the Mantras originate from a super conscious part, of the seer received from the depth of the heart, brought forwarded by the, from the contemplation of his conscious mind, finally bread out in the form of inevitable berry, what did it means, when the Rishi transcend the mind and activities of the mind in the intellect form beyond that the Rishi goes to that steps and receives in the purest form of his medium, the knowledge and the vibration, then transmits through the body, as the vocal utterance or sound then that becomes the Mantra, So that is the Mantra drashtrara and Mandra, so the two things, so that’s very important to remember, so which means when we say, “Vedasa purushayya” what it means we have to raise the level, beyond intellect to resonate with the mantras, that’s what it mean, we should not make the meaning of all the Mantras in a level of ordinary intelligence, because it won’t, it won’t, it won’t be understood properly, they have to rise that level and Mantras are orally transmitted and there is lot of acoustical knowledge here, acoustical science, when it is transmitted orally from Guru to shishya, Guru to shishya, very precision is required and so that is where the Mantra transmitted and because the intonation we will get the terms get svara, svara is a beautiful thing, svarayathi theythi svara ha, that is the definition of what sounds each svara, svara comes in music, svara comes in Vedas, and svara comes in the language, svaravenjana, like that, so svara is very important.
Then comes the music, part of it, so we know that the vedic svaras which are generally three, mainly and they are connected to the sapthsvaras in Sanskrit or in sangeeth and then we have correspond and that is how the original of the music, classical music in particular is related to the vedas, that is the connection there and then we have the various the phonetics and the jaba dhanathiyoga, and all of that comes there. Oral tradition is very, very important one, I want to make every important point, if we see in literature, people have written wrongly about oral tradition, what is mean by that is, in fact many people thing that oral tradition was there because there is no development of writing, you know, people was not advance, it’s not fully correct, why because oral tradition was chosen by our Rishi’s, because of its efficiency, isn’t it. See so when you transmit knowledge through the writing, lot of things get lost, for example my own speech know, see what we are doing right know with interaction with live interaction here, if you put the same things in writing, we are going to lose a lot of information, ah knowledge will be transmitted but not precisely because the intonation, the direct transmission from life source to life source. So oral transmission was taken as the efficient means, even today in the veda padasalas, Books are not kept, seers Padasalas, they don’t allow books, which the movement you hold a book, your attention is gone, attention to learn is gone, music oral tradition, dance oral tradition, so oral tradition is very important one that is have Rishi’s in one of the famous Santhi Mantra “Om bhadramtharanebe vishnunu yamadeva ha” effecting like a bhadramtharanebe vishnunu yamadeva ha, may our ability to hear be very strong and sound, then bhadrampakshemakshe bariyathatha ha may our site, be see noble thing, then our limbs, be strong, so that we can enjoy the life, for the goodwill of all the levels, people, the dignity like that. Then this was recognized by UNSCO,UN world cultural heritage, in 2003 that the oral tradition of the veda is one of the intangible cultural threshers of the world, and that is good and it also recognized the acoustical clarity aspect of topic, it ensure the sound of each word, remains unaltered, we can see that. Now this vedamantras when I am sure all of us hear the vedamantra, it has been kept tag in thousands of years, and the technology of keeping it is an very interesting one, because there are many Vikrithi’s, Vikrithi’ means alternate forms of chanting, so they take the Mola, that is samhitha what is called, then take it different levels, and more and more complex, so that when it retained in that form, it retained the whole things intact, I will give a very simple demo, see here Shiva panchaakshari mantra, the first one namashivasya cha and that is called samhitha pada the first line, then if you, there are three words there, namaha, shivaya, cha, it we take it that one two and three, then pathapada become one, two and three, then Kramapada becomes one two, one two three, then Jathapada become one two, two one, one two, two three, three two, two three, then another complex one Dhanapada is referred as one two, two one, one two three, three two one , one two three, then again two three, three two, two three four, like that four three two, two three four then again it goes three four, so like that it maintained and acoustically it is transfer like that, so let us hear this one, “Namashivaya cha”, that is samhitha, patha, Namaha shivaya cha, so we can see that is note changed. So the line below is called anudhartha, the line above is called swaritha and without line is called as uthartha, so this is how way we recognized, so the kramapada Namashivaya shivaya cha, then it recite the Japapada, jada means like braiding you know, like hair, you can one two, two one, one two Namashivaya, shivaya namo Namashivaya shivaya chatha shivaya shivaya cha you can see then if you take the Dhanapada “Namashivaya Namashivaya shivaya namo Namashivaya chatha shivaya namo Namashivaya cha shivaya chatha shivaya shivaya cha” like that it goes, and you can see the science of it here also, it not only beautiful, melody you know carrying energy, of lord shiva but Acoustically it is really bringing svara, sakthi very beautifully, so that is. Now when we come to the pronunciation articulation is very important, I thing that the whole science of phonetic and articulation that is so well developed in Hindu thinking or Hindu science.
And off course some show many of you the grate Shiva thandava, natharaja, Shiva natharaja and there the drum on his upper hand the drum represent as said the human body, and the two strings represents the prana, pana the vital forces, and when they interact the sounds are produced, in the human system, which is all sounds that we produce sound, even normal speaking, that is how the sound is produced in everybody, the Prana and Pana is involved. So and there that thing it says that “Nrethavasanae nadaraja rajo nanadhdakkan nava pancha varam udharthana dhanakarya sankadhisidhamn Shivasoothrajalam”. So the nadaraja, beat the drum nine and five time, forty, and that become what is known as the Suthras, which was further gave, but to Sanskrit language, that is how the seed sound and these you can see, the sounds, sound do sound like drum, because when I recited this suthra without telling a Mruthangam and Thabala player, they did say it sounded like that, so the sounds come like that. So if you can see to the left path on there you can see the Ai, u na “Ai, u na tru lu ae o ai o cha hi v ra ya ma ga na nam cha bha ga da ja ba ga da dha sha kha fa cha du th ka pai ja ga sar hal”, so when you recite like that continuously the sounds seeds coming out that come like the drum sound. And then off course we know the grate Panini, we have the sounds and the place of Articulation, so we have the kantha, kantha is basically coming from the whole throat completely mouth open and then we have the tongue, the thalavya then murdhaya the upper part of the skull, then dhantha the teeth and then the ostha the lip, and you can see the suthras “akuhavisarjaniyam kant ha”, that is Aa sound of Aa Ka,kha,ga, gha that comes from the full throat opening and then ha, and then we have “Echuveshanam thalu” Ee, the tongue place a major role here and ca,cha,ja, ja like and lu refer to the cerebrum, upper part of the cerebrum, the tongue hit the cerebrum there and then you can feel it ie,ta,ta,da,da when you say proper hit you can see, ta,ta,da,da you can feel the vibration here, that when you only say accurate, then we have to feel it here, now and then we have lu and too refer to ta tha da dha and that is dhantha and you can see that the teeth place a major role, and ya ma ga na na, off course obviously nasal. So like that we see the articulation is very important, and the pronunciation is not only in terms articulation is important but also it’s a spiritual practice, why, see spiritual practice means there should be some translation that is going on in the physical system also, because spirituality means the whole thing, mind, body, sprit all the three things are integrated, so that means by reciting it the body get activated proper direction, proper orientation and when you produce a Mahaprana, Pha, kha, gha, dha, so you are producing the energy coming out from the nabhi, bellow nabhi, so when you are a, all the times saying that we are making conscious effort to bring the energy upward and then it climbs up the whole thing, that is why Rama ji is here Ayurvetha also, uses these mantra, charaka, the grate charaka Rishi advices in some situation, to say vishnusahasranama, so mantras are also used from the therapeutic point of you also as a byproduct, now a very simple demo I can saw you, how it is scientific and a realistic sense, because it is kinetic energy, what is kinetic energy one has mv^2, so the velocity of waves that coming out here make things more, when with a Mahaprana, so we can see here, pa,pha,dha,kha,kha,dha you can see it is moving, if I don’t say it properly pa,pha,dha,kha, I am saying it but not enough and sometime if you don’t say what it happen, simply we are going to the act of saying but not receiving the effect, we are not receiving the benefit of it, that is why Mantras have to be recited, properly, in addition to bhakthi, sreadha is to be required, and sreadha means these things, sreadha means not just belief, sreadha means action also, Sredha Bhakthi samanitha ha” says in Vishnusahasranama, so we can see the very important aspect of it, then.
So to see what some other acoustical aspects of Sanskrit is, sound assigned to alphabet do not change, and there is a very beautiful one, why, because once you learn, if I write kha, gha like that is it, then you what to worry about it, no mean to where you write it is always kha. So that acoustic and writing are connected very closely. The desired words usually have some acoustic similarity with the root, it is also very beautiful, because if we take for an example Vidhu, Vidhu means to know, Vedas means knowledge, Vidhyarthi means one who is anxious to know, Vidhwan means one who knows, Vidhyalaya means, the place where you want to go to know, see the word vidhu is bringing that acoustically it is very important, why, because memory, see memory goes by association, that is why memorizing in Sanskrit is quite easier, initially you have to put some effort, but once you put that effort, than it become very easy, soft aspirant hard aspirant I showed you, very good correlation that I showed you, easy for memorization, we talked about, effect of Sandhi relates to places of utterances this is a beautiful one, see Aa + Ee is A, that’s call guna sandhi, now Aa comes from kantha, Aa like that, Ee comes from basically Thalu, that is tongue, now we bring that kantha, that means the throat and the tongue together, the only sound that can come is A, no other sound, simple experiment, you take the word Ganesha, it is made up of two word, Gana + Esha, so what I do is know, Gana i release a time break say one, two or three second Gana Esha, now I reduce the time between GanaEsha, GanaEsha, Gana Esha, now you make time zero, the only way you can produce complain as it Ganesha, no other sound can come, you can make the experiment yourself later, there is no other way you can produce the sound, this is the beauty, this is what the practical, so you say acoustical science, this is science, Sandhi is also natural in that sense, so very important. So Sir C V Raman, I am sure that all of us know this great man, and he has a fascination for acoustic and I don’t know how many of you know this, he is thoughtis work with acoustic in his scientific carrier and I got you know, attracted to optics good for us, good for the country, good for him, he got the Nobel prize, and later that he comes to acoustic again in his later years, very beautiful and I will see some of his work later also, he says “it would form a fascinating chapter of history to try and trace the gradual development of musical instruments and musical knowledge, from the rhythmic chanting of Rigveda in the ancient home of Aryan race to the classical Indian music of the present day”. I fully agree with him, because there is continuity from the Vedas of the antiquity, to the music of the current, it is there, it is just we have to know it, we have trace it, it’s already built in, we have trace that’s all. That is why if we see the musical stalwart, especially like Thyagaraja, for example, he gives that is the whole number of Krithis, compositions of, from Thyagaraja just on this Naadha, Shabda, so that’s connection, very interesting.
So little bit on our Naadha, shabda world, see the Tantra is another place where we will see a good amount of Naada and Shabda “Chaithanyam Sharvabhoothanam shabda brahmethi nemathi hi”. So Now we have the two main words that you will terms shabda and Naada, now Naada is more like a flowing energy, shabda is seen little more than like a crystallized one like water other is ice, both are the same, but one is flowing, and other is little bit formed, so we will see, there will see the beautiful connection, so that is shabdabramhan, that is chaithanyam, chaithanyam is shabdabramhan, then I the first prayer that I did before I started from the Sangita Ratnakara “Chaithanyam, sarva bhoothanam, vihritham gapathanmana”, it became vivrithavadha, that means it became manifested and that is called Naada Bramhan, and this Naada Bramhan is anandham, now anandha basically refers to the true joy, that joy that is naturally available, so when we see beautiful sky, clear sky, I am sure everybody feels happy, because nobody can take ownership I did it nobody wanted to take it, you go in to the ocean everybody is happy why, ocean is not making advertisement that is the way it is, and everybody receives that vision and sound. So like this Naada Bramhan is everywhere, and the movement that you tune to it then you get happy, that’s what it’s beautiful, then we have “na naadena vina geetham na naadena vina svaraha, na naadena vina Nrithyam thasmana dathmakam jagath”. So there is no Music, there is no speech, there is no dance very interesting, the dance the heart of the dance is music, you stop the music, you stop the dance, very interesting, see in live music you may not recognized it, in recorded music you recognize it, many times what happen, in concert when people don’t have the live music, they were the recorded music, some technical guilt the music stops, the dance have stops, right, so that is, so what is driving what is very interesting one, both are important. So Naada and Shabda, Panini gives very beautiful definition “Aakhasa vayu prabhava ha sareeratha samucharan vavthremupaithy naada ha”, Aakhasa refers to basically space, space and vayu is the air within and which is the indication of pranasidhi as that I said earlier, so when they interact within the Naada develops and that naadha sakhti comes through sthanethareshu vakthra mupaithi, when it comes through the vocal cavity, produce like words, it become shabda. As I said water and ice, one has form, other has form less, then “Sabdho dothiksha varnaksha mrethangabhavoo dhwanihi, so dwani is basically coming from the throat, and the other one varana come from the mouth which is the language also that’s it. So that is the dwani is another word from the sabdha, so that is why we have the musical instrument everything comes through dwani, speech everything comes through varana, and there both form the shabda.
Now this is the very inspiring statement” just as from a seed comes naturally sprout, branch, leaf, flower, unripe fruit and full fruit likewise starting from spiritual light as seed the naada, svara and aksharas have developed into the various aspect of knowledge”. it has we talked about Naada Bramhan which is going with the sabda bramhan, so they combined as the root. “Music should become the bridge that takes the listeners from sensual level to spiritual level” it has to the it the connection from sensual to the spirit if you stop only in the mind level, then we are not using the full power of it that’s all, it does give the manoranjan, but we are not fully utilizing its capacity, we have to go even above, through the manoranjan we have to go to Athmaranjan, when you go to that it gives full. So this is by my spiritual guru actually yogi Sriranga Sadguru, this is the very important veda mantra, probably one of the key slides here, so when he say speech, that is what you are hearing, it is the last quarter of the whole process, what you are getting at your ear is the last quarter, so what this veda mantra, Rigveda mantra says that, there are three quarters behind it, now, not only we should know it, that is four aspects, but we also should have an understanding, and ability to deal with that, why because then our output we can control, isn’t there, when you know the whole process, you can control the output, otherwise you will not able to control. so what are the four, so what are you getting, acquire Ear is “Vaikhari”, Vaikhari means fully orchestrated fully manifested at your level, at your point, now when we go back from know to unknown right, know to un know, so I comeback, so I come back to my mouth Vaikhari but still I have to go back because already produced here, when I goback it is coming through here, “Madhyama”, because this is the medium, this physical medium, I mean Khanta says there is no throat, so Madhyama”, but before it comes it’s here, it is “Pashyanthi” that is as I want to say, I am seeing, I am seeing what I want to say in a quick way, I mean when you are talking, that’s what you are doing also, everybody has to do that four stages, so it is seeing and before you come to that, you have to have that energy to even to, make to that happen and that is “Para”, which is all forwarding. Now a beautiful example this Para, Pashyanthi, Madhyama, Vaikhari use, we can used to explain everything, it’s not just only sound, from sound we feel it to understand, you can explain everything, even starting this meeting, it can apply, you go from the know to unknown, for example here see, when I drank the water, I get the water in the tank, that is Vaikhari because I can able to hold and drink, then where did that water comes to that place, if you go back it has to come from the reservoir, where ever it is, and that is the medium, Madhyama, but where did it come to the reservoir that’s from the rain, now that is Pashyanthi, where did it come to the reservoir, in the clouds, I don’t see water in the cloud, then that say, you need for that Rishi dhrishti, it come to see but you need a Rishi dhrishti, the development of the inner eye, yogic eye, which everybody can grasp, as I said earlier this is open knowledge, Rishis knowledge are open, that is why they don’t have any patent, they don’t charges its free, but because for it involve so much of, you know sathdana and Thithiksha and everything, that, now the point here this is very important, “Chathwari vake parimitha pradhani” and now when you bring that in to the speech production, very, very nice fusion are change “Athma vivakshamanoyam mana mana ha prerayathe”, so the soul, the inner person, wishes then that activates the mind, so I activate my mind, come on go to action now, then the mind what did it does is “Mana ha nabhistha vanhimahanathi sa prerayathi marutham” so this mind what did it does it, it takes the fire element, which is in the nabishthana, in the stomach in the area, so that is were in the heat element, so you take the heat, and then it take it inspire the Marutha, that is air because we produce the sound when we excel basically, our speech is coming out, when you are excelling, it is very hard, probably it is impossible inhale and speak, even if you try it won’t happen, so speech usually, you have to excellent it, so then it comes, then both companied heat and air to the organs, “Nha Bhrahma granthi sthitho naadh ha kramadhovartho charan nabhi huthkanta murdhasoyoshavavirevathi sa dhawni” and same words, or similar words Thyagaraja in one of his composition here Srikantha nabhi huthkanta, like that, so you can see the, and various chakra positions, it also given here, now one more slide which gives you more, this is another very important slides, because, when the sound is, when I speak at the mouth level to two systems should work together in harmony, very important, the biological systems and the psychological systems, what do I mean by that, the psychological systems means, see when you see in a top one, ”Vaikari shabdha nishpanthi hi”, the sounds are coming out as Vaikari, but behind it, I have to get the words, right, before I say through the mouth I have to get the words, where did that words comes from, from my library, but where is the library, memory library that is called vocabulary, if you don’t have it already there, it won’t come, so “Madhyama smithigochara”, we may, so finally the memory that is the point, the memory had to be there, now to the memory, you come from where, form the intention “Jyothikarthsya” because I have to get that actual intuitive word, I cannot get to any word, the intention has to be there, what I want to communicate, all the things should happen quickly, for every speaker, then behind that it’s all forwarding, so we have the psychological, we have the biological you come here and beautiful merger of the two produces speech. If this modern science has not spoken in this way, modern science also has lungs, some memory, you know, but the element like this connecting from the para, from the mooladhara to the vaikari, kantha desa from all this holistic connection, is something is that we see, clearly, so when you see the vaikari four the dimension, of expression speech language in the top, literature figures of speech in the right one, Mantra, japa, in the lower one and Music, vocal instrument, dace in third one, and then here we see, the speaker to listener, resonant, very important, the speaker to listener, what it says is this is very phenomenal actually, if you understand and bring it to no more quarrels anywhere in the human world, but it very difficult to employ, what did it means is, the speaker is speaking through, all the experience that I am taking from a five senses, I am converting it to speech medium, and give it out, now you are the listener, you have to take it attentively, and faithfully converted back to your five senses, very important, see if I am telling something about test I bring it with my “Anubhava”, experience I bring it through and you take it and you have to transfer it back in to experienced world of tongue, if you don’t do it then you miss that element, so pursuit communication acquires from my five sensual experience to your five sensual experience, and speech carries it through, and this is, this is way, no other sense can do that, only speech. And vedic order of element is a very beautiful one, this order is given from the Vedas, that is “Hamvayudyotharava prithuvi” like that it give, the space, air, fire, water, earth and the sense of perception, now the space and sound, they are connected you cannot disperse the space from any other way, only through sound, you change the space that means you change enlarge the space form changes, you remove, you open the door, you connect that room to this sound changes, very, very interesting observation. So our Rishi’s very nicely connected Vaisheyichika suthra is there, “Sabhdaguna aakasha ha” that is suthra, now we took one some application, I am coming to some application, This is we have done sound, as we seen in a temple, sacred sound, how beautiful it is in sacred sound in temple, to the left one we see the regular temple, and to the right one in near Bangalore, this is rock, Cave rock temple, rock at cave temple, so you have to go under the ground it is formed in a beautiful rock, very beautiful and here so let me have a few video, I think, now as you see here, I wanted to focus in the Garbha graha, the sound is produced, Mantras, conceal, see how the sound pattern is coming out in the Ardhamandapa, and you will see, compared to the human figure there, you see there, so this is the Grabha graham, right the face is the Grabha graham, this is the Ardhamandapa, the throat, and this is the Mahamandapa, so as the sound is produced, it is coming through and expanding here, and that’s what happen, when you recite, when you sing a song anything you fill through, so that is what really of see, like you can really see the human form here, and that is coming from there, and that is coming to the chakras, and that is very beautiful connection here, then here, I want to, make to listen, so this is totally, absorbing environment, it is not a temple, it is simply absorbing, no reflection at all from anywhere, now you see here the Mantra, shanka, gantha, Jagatha all these things, and if you see hear only sounds, now compare this, compare that to this, you can see the reflection, vibration coming out of the Ardhamandapa and the Mahamandapa, you can see the sound very clearly the sound is surrounding the devotee and these are the frequency Hz, you can see, you won’t have so much time to go in to that, basically what we have know from this is, it covers, spread out in our audio range, and what that means that we all given a positive and a beautiful, ambiance and excitement in a sacred environment through this acoustical frequency and that is the meaning of it, and this is the another beautiful experience, this is in the conceal, in the cave temple, and I wanted to note one thing here, somewhere in the middle my blowing stops, blowing of the conceal, then you hear only the reflection and this cave temple is about eighty meter’s long, eighty meter’s, something like two hundred and fifty, sixty feet very long, and it’s the, so you can see hear, the same my blowing stops and will continue, now this is another beautiful thing here, we are chanting in the Ardhamandapa, and Ardhamandapa is the first arrival point, near the Murthi, and two hundred and seventy meters, and two hundred feet and so near the second arrow we are recording, we are recording in both places and you see the clarity in spite of the high Eco, that is the important thing to see here, so here the same thing recording at the same time but it wended twenty meter down the temple, you will see the eco but also have the clarity, so you can see that eco and now here conceal, I blew it in the I didn’t blew it in the a literature, I produce the sound, in normally when I said I blew it, it means you break it, I didn’t do that , I produce the sound earlier and you see the specialty of this, you see the figure down, that is the cross section of the conceal, very, very intricate produced by the nature, it like a cochlea inside, so what did does it because of its curved space area, the sound that the air and putting it and here gets clarified, purified because of this curvy path, and when it comes out, it comes out with pure sound, what is mean by pure sound, single frequency, in acoustic, pure sound means single frequency, frequency you can see that tone, if I speak, they may have how high very sharp, it is not easy to produce, that kind of sound, even if a well designed instrument it is that difficult, but nature has given man, so you can see, you can hear the sound, so you can see, that whole thing, and what we did was, we took that geometry, and when we produce, put it in drawing, it’s like a elliptic cross section, you take the two, major and minor, cross section and make it as a horn, so it is like a horn, but in a curved spiral, here this a flute, what we have done this is, we take a regular bamboo flute and I wanted to know how the length ratios are done, because thus when bamboo flute is done people used it by listening here, in nobody, actually, measure, they do it by listening and they know by, then I calculated and compared to the Pythagorean scale, you see that experiment and theory, you can see that ratio I took SA by 837, and then you can see the RH, higher RH flat 1.09, 1.07,1.14 the good point of comparison, put in the Pythagorean scale and our regular bamboo flute that we here, and this shows that’s how the knowledge is universal, that’s the point I am making, this is where the Sir, C V Raman’s the one of the other great contribution, he was the first one to show experimentally, if see Tabala and Mridangam has a unique acoustic quality, that is, see it is two dimensional structure right, two dimensional means like a plate, like a plate like this, see strings, if we take string, one dimensional now automatically it is harmony, one length, you make the length has, you get the higher, double the frequency, but here it is not like that, because of the plate, so what did does is, it produces all types of frequency, that is why you get annoyed, if I started to doing like this you will get annoyed, everybody will get annoyed, but because the Mridangam and Tabala because of that central Karanai, we call karanai, iron oxide or some material is put there, mercury and all thing, so that black thing putting properly, you get up to five frequency, harmony that means it is hundred, two hundred, three hundred, four hundred, five hundred Hz like that, so if we complain all of them it is beautiful, so that is why Tabala and Mridangam, you can listen alone, only Tabala and Mridangam you can listen for hours together, but not any drum alone because of that, so that is a very beautiful and mathematical equations, for all form and shown and all that, recently, then this is another, we are coming to here, the veena, veena is represents our spinal code, in fact there is in the veda Mantra, “Daive, Manushi, Veena Bhavathi” like that, so what it is, as we can see here, this is the drawing based on our, my spiritual metal Sriranga Sathguru’s is drawing, so you can see here, the veena represents and the human spinal cord and that is called Kuruma, basically it is musical language, is also called kuruma, basically it is the base of the Turtleand it is said that, you know when we have a Kurumasana, you know it is yogic term, I will, I will serve it for another lecture, what I wanted to show here, how acoustic plays a beautiful role, in Hinduism, It has a Science role, It has a art role It has a Social integration role, it has all kinds of beautiful role, it has all kinds of beautiful role and that is the beauty of it, in festival and all of that, so this is the precession, Uthsav, as we know, in temples have to do Uthsav, and all the festivals, where they take the deity, in to the street with all music and everything, so that people who unable to come, also get the benefit of the blessing at their home. So because the god is for everybody, so with that this is the precession done in New York, very beautiful one, have a small clip of that, so we have to end by noble presentation with a small poem that I wrote about music Ah! Music, are you the flow of sound?, Or in silence the feeling of mind?, Can you be described as frequencies?, Or as thoughts through sound waves?, from speech how do you differ?, How do you cross language barrier?, what make you good or bad?, As you influence listener’s mood. What makes you so powerful?, Although you are invisible. Various emotions come through you. Dancing patterns depend on you. Is your secret harmony?, Or is your strength melody?, Or is the lyric with memory?, Or the rhythm in which you vary?, what you are, it is hard to say. Whatever you are, give us Peace and Joy.
Now this is about, to conclude sound place an important role in both scientific and spiritual aspect of Hinduism. Anything that moves produces sound and sound carries information, that is a very important one every sound carries information, there is no sound that does not carry information, you please check it out, this statement is a very powerful statement, but not all information we are able to understand that is the different thing but it does carry then, the Vedas emphasize that the ubiquity of manifested sound is integrally related to Universal consciousness. This is another topic that I am working very closely now, sound and consciousness that is very directly connected. Four-fold description of Naada leading to manifested sound enables the seeker to advance toward the Universal consciousness. The role of manifested sound (Vaikhari) is seen in many areas of human interest such as speech, chants, vocal and instrumental music. And I am, I Deeply grateful to my Guru, Sriranga sathguru of Astanga youga Mandiram mysore and also various of my colleagues and my students, who are work with me, and Thanks all of you.