Miscellaneous

The Veer Rajas of Bharat who fought under Islamic rule to save their Matrubhumi

– Supratik Sarkar

Raja of Delhi – Mahipala

After Mahmud of Gazni’s death the Indian chiefs in 1043 AD organized a confederacy under the Tomara King of Delhi, Mahipala, against the Ghaznavides. The Paramara Bhoja, the Kalachuri Kama and the Chahamana Anahilla were probably among those who formed the confederacy. Firistha gives the following account of this concerted action-

“In the year 1043 AD, the Raja of Delhy, in conjunction with other rajas, retook Hansy, Tahnesur and their dependencies from the governors to whom Madood (1040-49 AD) had entrusted them. The Hindoos from thence marched towards the fort of Nagarkote, which they besieged for four months. “

Battle of Bahraich

– A few extracts from Mirat-i- Masudi will illustrate this event. “Several chiefs wrote to all the Rais round, saying ‘This is the land of our fathers and ancestors who this boy (Salar Masud, nephew of Mahmud of Gazni) wants to take from us by force. You had better come speedily to our assistance, or we shall lose our country.’In two months time all the Rais of the Hindu Kot and the countries round assembled with innumerable forces and encamping on the bank of the river Kahsala, sent one to tell Masud that ‘If he wished to save his life, he had better leave the country and go elsewhere, as the land belonged to their Fathers and ancestors and they were determined to drive him from it. ‘ “

Mirat-i-Masudi further says, “The army of the enemy was innumerable, like mountains on every side; so that although numerous forces fought in the army of Islam, they were mown down like so much grass. Many of the greatest nobles met their deaths. In the course of that day, from morning till evening prayer, two-thirds of the army were slain, leaving but one-third to mourn their loss.”

“Meanwhile, the Rai Sahar Deo (Suheldev) and Har Deo, with several other chiefs who had kept their troops in reserve, seeing that the army of Islam was reduced to nothing, unitedly attacked the body-guard of the prince (Salar Masud). On 14th June 1033 AD a chance arrow pierced the main artery of Masud. After Masud’s death the unbelievers drove his descendants from Ajmer and re-established their idols, and idolatry again reigned over the land of India.”

Shahi Jaypala

Shortly after his accession Sabuktigin added to his kingdom Bust, Dawar, Qusdar, Bamlyan, Tukharistan, and Ghur. He also led frequent expeditions against the kingdom of the Shahis of Udabhanda, which, as has already been noted, extended as far as the Kabul Valley. ’Utbi regards these military campaigns as holy wars for the propagation of Islam. Sabuktigin plundered forts on the tops of hills in the outlying provinces of the Shahi kingdom, captured many cities, and acquired immense wealth. The Shahi Jayapala obviously could not ignore these incidents. He organised his forces, which included huge elephants, and set out to punish Sabuktigin. At some place between Lamghan and Ghazni he met with Sabuktigln and his young son Mahmud. The battle between the two armies continued for several days.According to Muslim chroniclers the Hindu army was rapidly gaining ground, and so Sabuktigln took recourse to unchivalrous means. There was near Jayapala’s camp a lofty mountain, called the ‘Ukba Ghuzak, in one of whose ravines there was a fountain of water. There was a popular superstition that if it was contaminated with any filth, “black clouds collected, whirlwinds arose, the summits of the mountains became black, rain fell, and the neighbourhood was filled with cold blasts, until red death supervened.” At the instance of Sabuktigin his men secretly threw dirty substance into the fountain and the dreadful consequences followed. There were hail storms, blast, and thunder; black vapour collected around the Hindu army impeding their progress, and many of them perished in the cold. Jayapala saved himself by concluding an ignominious treaty with the Amir. But as soon as he safely reached his own country he repudiated the treaty. Enraged at this conduct of the Shahi king, Sabuktigin forthwith led an army against him. After a strenuous fight Sabuktigln defeated his enemy, and succeeded in establishing his authority as far as the city of Lamghan, which was famous for its immense wealth and strong fortification. Jayapala decided to make a determined effort to re-establish his control of it, and collected an army consisting of more than one hundred thousand troops. Firishta states that the Rajas of Delhi, Ajmer, Kalanjara, and many other neighbouring countries supplied contingents to help the Shahi king on this occasion. This statement of Firishta is very important, as a confederacy of Indian rulers, united in opposition to foreign invasion, is a rare event in Indian history. The three capital cities mentioned by Firishta seem to suggest that the Tomaras, Chahamanas and the Chandellas sent troops to the aid of Jayapala.

On receiving news of the advance of the Hindu army Sabuktigin stationed his troops in a strategic position on a lofty hill near Lamghan. Having made a general survey of the countless forces of Jayapala from his post, he divided his soldiers into batches of five hundred men, and sent them in succession to attack a particular point of the enemy line. Soon a confusion arose in the Hindu camp, and then all these detached squadrons made a united attack. There followed a close fight in which only swords could be used, and Hindus were killed in large numbers. After a short resistance the Hindu army fled in utter confusion leaving behind their property, arms, provisions, elephants, and horses. This is the account handed down to us by the Muslim historians, and we have no means to check it by comparing it with the version of the other side. Sabuktigin annexed the whole of the territory between Lamghan and Peshawar and introduced Islam among the people of this region who were probably followers of Buddhism.

Jaypal vs Mahmud

In A.D. 1000 Mahmud led the first expedition against India, and seized some fortresses, which seem to have been situated in the neighbourhood of Peshawar. In the following year Mahmud again advanced with an army consisting of 15,000 picked cavalry, men, and officers, and encamped in the outskirt of the city of Peshawar. On receipt of this news Jayapala marched with 12,000 horsemen, 30,000 foot soldiers, and 300 elephants to resist the invader, and pitched his camp near that city. He avoided taking direct action for some time awaiting the arrival of more troops from the tribal area. Mahmud realised the situation and attacked the enemy without further delay. The cavalry and elephant forces of Jayapala, amidst beat of drums, plunged themselves into the thick of the battle, but before noon the Hindus were routed and 5,000 of them lost their lives. Jayapala was captured together with his sons and grandsons, and they were detained at a place known as Mirand. He released Jayapala on his promise to pay 250,000 dinars and to deliver 25 elephants. Jaypal on returning to his own kingdom considered himself unworthy of the throne because he successively lost three battles at the hands of Muslims and burnt himself on a funeral pyre, which he is said to have kindled with his own hands. Anandapala succeeded him shortly after A.D. 1001.

Raja Rama

In A.D. 1011 Mahmud started with his army from Ghazni with a view to plundering the city of Thaneshwar. The Sultan, in course of his march, reached the bank of a river, where he was opposed by a Raja named Rama, the chief of Dera, who was also anxious to save the sacred city from pillage. The river, which is identified by some with the Sutlej, flowed swiftly through a mountain pass. Its banks were precipitous and its bottom was full of large stones. Rama, together with his elephants, cavalry, and infantry, took up his position in the ravines. At the Sultan’s command two contingents of the Muslim army forded the river at two points and attacked the Raja Rama on both sides. While the battle was in progress a third contingent marched up the stream, crossed the river, and attacked the vital position of Raja Rama. The fight continued fiercely till evening, when the Hindus fled from the battlefield leaving their elephants behind. After gaining complete victory mahmud resumed his march.

Narasimha l of Orissa

Anangabhima III was succeeded by his son Narasimha I in A.D. 1238. His reign marks a glorious period in the history of Orissa. He was one of the few Hindu kings of this age who thought it more prudent to launch aggressive campaigns against the Muslims than to play the defensive part. The Muslims were now in possession of the greater part of Radha (W. Bengal), but large parts of Hooghly and Nadia districts were still unsubdued. Towards the end of A.D. 1243, Narasimha sent an army to Bengal. Tughril-i-Tughan Khan, the Muslim ruler of Bengal, took the field against Narasimha in March, A.D. 1244, and the historian Minhaj also joined in “this holy war”. The Orissan army made a strategic retreat, without fighting, to the fortress of Katasingh on their frontier, a region full of dense jungles and cane-bushes. In April, 1244, the Muslim forces made an assault on the fort and obtained some initial success. But while they were taking rest at mid-day, the Hindu soldiers appeared both in their front and rear. The Muslim army was seized with panic and fled in hot haste, pursued by the Orissan forces. Tughril Tughan was unable to make a stand even in his own fort of Lakhanor, 70 miles north-west of Katasingh. It was a veritable disaster for the Muslims. Narasimha I captured Lakhanor and put an end to the Muslim rule in Radha. He then invaded Varendra (N. Bengal) and advanced as far as Lakhnawati (March 1245). It was not till the end of A.D. 1253 that the new Muslim Governor of Bengal, Yuzbak, made an attempt to recover Radha. He was opposed by a son-in-law of Narasimha who ruled as his vassal over a strong principality with its capital at Madaran in Hooghly District. Three battles were fought in the last of which Yuzbak suffered a defeat with heavy loss and implored assistance from the Sultan of Delhi. Towards the end of A.D. 1255 Yuzbak again invaded Radha and captured Madaran. He succeeded in re-establishing Muslim authority over Radha. Although Narasirhha could not maintain his hold in Bengal, his aggressive campaign and success against the Muslim forces for a period of ten years entitles him to a high place of honour among the Hindu kings of Northern India during this age.

The Rajput Warrior Vagbhata

When the Rajput king of Ranathambhor Viranarayana was treacherously poisoned and killed by Jalaluddin Khilji, Ranathambhor was left without a king and was soon captured by the muslims. Viranarayana’s uncle Vagbhata was in Malwa. Jalaluddin sent a message to the king of Malwa that Vagbhata be put to death. Vabhata discovered this secret and killed the ruler of Malwa instead and possessed the throne of Malwa. Vagbhata gathered around him a number of Rajputs. Possessed thus at once of a country and an army he joined hands with the Kharpuras who were already in arms against the Muhammedans. Vagbhata conducted the combined army to Ranathambhor and reduced its muslim garrison to such a plight that they vacated the fort. Thus Vagbhata and the Rajputs once again became the masters of Ranathambhor. It was Vagbhata’s policy to station large forces along different posts along the frontier and thus to keep off his enemies. Vagbhata died after a happy reign of twelve years. Vagbhata’s grandson was Hammirdeva.

Raja Dahir – King of Sindh

Al-Hajjaj became governor of Iraq in 695 AD. He obtained permission from the caliph to invade Sindh. Al- Hajjaj first dispatched Ubaidullah to raid Debal who was killed. Hajjaj then sent Budail who was defeated and killed by Jaisiah, son of Dahir-king of Sindh. Hajjaj next send Muhammad bin Kasim to invade Sindh with 6000 men and 6000 armed camel riders. Hajjaj instructed Muhammad bin Qasim to give no quarter to infidels, but to cut their throats, and take the women and children as captives.Despite a huge preparation by Kasim it is extremely doubtful if Sindh could have been conquered by Muhammad bin Kasim in 712 AD had all the people and chiefs of Sindh remained true to their king. A Brahmin gave out the secret of the red flag flying at the top of the temple. Kasim aimed the catapult and brought down the flagstaff. The defenders became dispirited and the fortress was stormed. At Nerun, the head of the town, Bhandarkar Samani (Buddhist) not only betrayed his countrymen but supplied Kasim with provisions to such an extent that the soldiers got sufficient corn for their needs. At Siwistan, when the cousin of King Dahir, Bachehra, insisted on fighting, the Samani party sent a message to Muhammad bun Kasim, “All the people whether agriculturists, artisans, merchants and other common folk have left Bachehra’s side and Bachehra has not sufficient men and materials of war.”

At Jortah, Prince Mokah also surrendered to Kasim and helped him with boats to cross the river Indus. Amidst all these desertions, the character of, and resistance offered by king Dahir, his queens Rani Bai and Ladi and his son Prince Jaisiah stands out in marked contrast. Dahir wrote to Muhammad, “Be it known to you that the fortified town of Debal, which you have taken is an insignificant town where only traders and artisans reside. If I had sent against you Rai Jaisiah who can wreak vengeance on the strongest man of his age…. you could not have done the slightest harm to them.” When intelligence reached Dahir that Kasim has reached a place near the fortress of Raor, Dahir said, “It is a place where his bones shall lie.”

When his Wazir suggested to Dahir to take away his followers and property to other parts of Hind-Dahir replied, “My plan is to meet the Arabs in open battle and fight them with all possible vigor.” The fight between Dahir and Kasim was fierce and lasted for several days. The Chachnama says that on the second day the muslim army was nearly routed. “The infidels made a rush on the arabs from all sides and fought so bravely and steadily that the army of islam became irresolute and their lines were broken up in great confusion.” 

But, Dahir seated on an elephant became an easy target and an arrow struck him in the chest. Dahir was killed and the army routed but Prince Jaisiah and the queen, Rani Bai, resolved to defend the fortress of Raor. The queen reviewed the army in the fort and 15000 warriors were counted. They had all resolved to die. Reduced to extremity the queen along with other ladies performed Jauhar. Jaisiah tried to organise the resistance from his stronghold of Brahmanabad. He wrote to all the chiefs of the remaining forts to hold on. He organised raids to cut off the supplies of the Arab army. It was only after a brave resistance of 6 months that the fort of Brahmanabad could be taken. Ladi, another queen of Dahir, brought out all her wealth and treasures and distributing them among the warriors of the army encouraged her soldiers. However in the midst of betrayals and desertions (Wazir Sisakar having already joined the Arabs) the unequal conflict could not last long and by 713 AD the whole of Sindh including Multan passed into the hands of the muslims. 

 

The destruction that followed the conquest of Sindh (Muslim Slave System in Ancient India, KS Lal)-

During the Arab invasion of Sindh (712 C.E.), Muhammad bin Qasim first attacked Debal, a word derived from Deval meaning temple. It was situated on the sea-coast not far from modern Karachi. It was garrisoned by 4000 Kshatriya soldiers and served by 3000 Brahmans. All males of the age of seventeen and upwards were put to the sword and their women and children were enslaved. 700 beautiful females, who were under the protection of Budh (that is, had taken shelter in the temple), were all captured with their valuable ornaments, and clothes adorned with jewels. Muhammad despatched one-fifth of the legal spoil to Hajjaj which included seventy-five damsels, the rest four-fifths were distributed among the soldiers. Thereafter whichever places he attacked like Rawar, Sehwan, Dhalila, Brahmanabad and Multan, Hindu soldiers and men with arms were slain, the common people fled, or, if flight was not possible, accepted Islam, or paid the poll tax, or died with their religion. Many women of the higher class immolated themselves in Jauhar, most others became prize of the victors. These women and children were enslaved and converted, and batches of them were des-patched to the Caliph in regular installments. For example, after Rawar was taken Muhammad Qasim halted there for three days during which he massacred 6000 (men). Their followers and dependents, as well as their women and children were taken prisoner amongst whom thirty were the daughters of the chiefs, and one of them was Rai Dahir’s sister’s daughter whose name was Jaisiya. Later on the slaves were counted, and their number came to 60, 000 (of both sexes?). Out of these, 30 were young ladies of the royal blood Muhammad Qasim sent all these to Hajjaj who forwarded them to Walid the Khalifa. He sold some of these female slaves of royal birth, and some he presented to others. In Brahmanabad, it is said that about six thousand fighting men were slain, but according to others sixteen thousand were killed, and their families enslaved. The garrison in the fort-city of Multan was put to the sword, and families of the chiefs and warriors of Multan, numbering about six thousand, were enslaved. In Sindh female slaves captured after every campaign of the marching army, were converted and married to Arab soldiers who settled down in colonies established in places like Mansura, Kuzdar, Mahfuza and Multan. The standing instructions of Hajjaj to Muhammad bin Qasim were to give no quarter to infidels, but to cut their throats, and take the women and children as captives. In the final stages of the conquest of Sindh, when the plunder and the prisoners of war were brought before Qasim one-fifth of all the prisoners were chosen and set aside; they were counted as amounting to twenty thousand in number (they belonged to high families) and veils were put on their faces, and the rest were given to the soldiers. Obviously a few lakh women were enslaved in the course of Arab invasion of Sindh.

 

Maharana Kumbha

Maharana Kumbha ascended the throne of Mewar in A.D. 1433, in the renowned fortress of Chitor and ruled till A.D. 1468. Rana Kumbha was born with Hamir’s energy and Lakha’s taste for arts and raised the banner of Mewar high. In 1440 AD sultans of Gujarat and Malwa formed a confederacy and invaded Mewar. Kumbha met them on the plains of Malwa, bordering on his own state and at the head of one hundred thousand horse and foot and 1400 elephants gave them an entire defeat, carrying captive to Chittoor Mahmud Khilji, sultan of Malwa. But such was Kumbha’s greatness that he let Sultan Mahmud free without any ransom. To commemorate this great victory, the Maharana built the great Jaya Stambha in the fortress of Chitor.

In A.D. 1442 the Maharana left Chitor to invade Haravati. Finding Mewar unprotected, sultan mahmud khilji of malwa,invaded Mewar and arriving near Kumbalmer prepared to destroy the temple of Bana Mata in Kelwara. A great Rajput warrior name Dip Singh resisted Mahmud for seven days but fell fighting. The temple fell into the hands of the mahmud and he razed it to the ground, burnt the stone image of the Mata and used the lime with betel leaves. When the Maharana heard of these events, he left Haravati to return to his dominions and came upon the Sultan’s army near Mandalgarh. A battle was fought here where the sultan was defeated. A few days later the Maharana made a night attack on the sultan who was utterly defeated and fled towards Mandu.

To retrieve this disaster, Mahmud set about preparing another army, and on 11-12 October 1446 A.D., he went towards Mandalgarh with a large army. The Maharana’s army attacked him while he was crossing the river Banas, and having defeated him drove him back to Mandu. For about 10 years after this defeat, Mahomed Khilji did not venture to take the offensive against the Maharana.

In A. D. 1455 Mahmud Khilji attacked Ajmer Gajadhar Singh, the Governor of the fort of Ajmer, defended the fort for four days, and then, he came out and attacked the Sultan’s army. He was killed after performing deeds of valour and slaying numbers of the enemy. Mahmud thus obtained possession of the fort.

Mahmud then went towards Mandalgarh. As he approached the river Banas, the Maharana’s army came out of the fort and fell upon the Sultan, who sustained a severe defeat and fled to Mandu.

In 1455 AD the sultan of Nagor, firoz khan died and his elder son Shams Khan came to the throne but his younger son, Mujahid Khan deposed him and prepared to take his life. Shams Khan fled to Rana Kumbha for shelter and help. Kumbha agreed to place Shams Khan on the throne of Nagor on the condition that he acknowledged Kumbha’s supremacy by demolishing part of the battlements of the fort of that place.The Maharana marched with a large army to Nagor, defeated Mujahid, and placed Shams Khan on the throne and returned to Mewar. No sooner, however, had Kumbha reached Kumbhalgarh than Shams Khan, instead of demolishing, began to strengthen the fortifications of Nagor. This brought Kumbha on the scene again with a large army. Shams Khan was driven out of Nagor, which passed into Kumbha’s possession. The Maharana now demolished the fortifications of Nagor and thus carried out his long-cherished design.

The Eklinga Mahatmya composed during Kumbha’s lifetime, says that he ” defeated the King of the Shakas (Mussalmans), put to flight Mashiti (Mujahid ?), slew the heroes of Nagpur (Nagor), destroyed the fort, filled up the moat round the fort, captured elephants,and punished countless Mussalmans. He gained a victory over the King of Gujrat, liberated twelve lakhs of cows from the Moslems, made the land a pasture for cows and gave Nagor for a time to Brahmans.”

In 1456 the Shams Khan sought help from Sultan Qutb-ud-din of Gujarat and having offered his daughter in marriage to the Sultan, secured the services of the Gujarat army. The sultan sent a large army to capture Nagor. The Maharana allowed the army to approach Nagor, when he came out, and after a severe engagement, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Gujrat army, annihilating it. Only remnants of it reached Ahmedabad, to carry the news of the disaster to the Sultan. The Sultan now took the field in person, determined to wrest Nagor back from the Maharana. The Maharana advanced to meet him and came to Mount Abu. In 1456 AD the sultan arrived near Abu and sent his Commander-in-Chief, Malik Shaaban Imad-ul-Mulk, with a large army, to take the fort of Abu, and himself marched upon the fortress of Kumbhalgarh. Kumbha, aware of this plan, came out, attacked and “defeated Imad-ul-Mulk with great slaughter,” and by forced marches reached Kumbhalgarh before the Sultan arrived there. Imad-ul-Mulk returned discomfited to the Sultan, and both arrived at the foot of the hill on which is perched the fortress of Kumbhalgarh. The Maharana sallied out of the fortress and attacked and defeated the Sultan, who sustained a heavy loss, and hopeless at taking this stronghold, retired to Gujrat.

In 1456, however, an offensive alliance against Kumbha was planned by the Sultans of Malwa and Gujarat and a treaty to that effect was solemnly signed at Champaner. The odds against Mewar seemed to be overwhelming, specially as the Rathor leader Jodha took the opportunity to join the Muslims against her. At the same time, within the State, a strong faction under Kumbha’s younger brother Kshema was also in arms against the Rana. In AD 1457, Qutb-ud-din advanced towards Kumbhalgarh, while Mahmud Khilji advanced towards Chitor and reached Mandsaur. TheMaharana wanted to dispose of Mahmud first, but finding that Qutb-ud-din had come near Kumbhalgarh, advanced to meet him first. Qutb-ud-din had chosen a strong position and the Maharana, after an indecisive action, fell back on a better position flanked by his native hills. Qutb-ud-din encouraged, advanced and an engagement took place which lasted for two days. After the first day’s engagement, both armies retired to their camps for the night : the dead bodies were cremated or buried, and the wounded were tended. With the break of day the battle was renewed, and as the Maharana’s army had the support of the hills behind them, while the Sultan’s army was in the open, the latter suffered severely and left the field completely vanquished. The Sultan had to fight hard for his life but eventually retired in safety. Thus, though the Maharana suffered a heavy loss, the Sultan was defeated and returned to Gujrat. The sultan of Malwa also retired to his territory foiled in his attempt. He had been so often defeated that after this unsuccessful attempt to retrieve his fallen fortunes, he gave up all hope of success against the Maharana, and though he lived for 10 years after this defeat, he never again ventured to invade Mewar.

In about AD 1459, the Haras of Bundi, Bhanda and Sanda, by a stratagem took possession of Amargarh and gave some trouble to the Rajputs of Mandalgarh. The Maharana, therefore, attacked and took Amargarh. The Maharana then laid siege to Bundi. Bhanda and Sanda thereupon came to the Maharana, sued for pardon and begged him to spare Bundi. The magnanimous Maharana granted their prayers, and returned to Chitor. The Deoras of Sirohi had thrown off the yoke of the Maharana and taken possession of Abu in A.D. 1458. Maharana subjugated them in no time. 

In A.D. 1467 reports reached the Maharana that the Mussalmans had begun to kill cows in Nagor. He therefore started with fifty thousand horsemen to attack Nagor. After putting thousands of the enemy to the sword, he captured the fort and carried away a number of elephants, horses and other valuables as spoils of war. The Governor of Nagor fled to the Court of the Sultan of Ahmedabad, who advanced in the direction of Sirohi with a large army, and, after plundering that part of the country, turned towards Kumbhalgarh. The Maharana also advanced with his Rajputs and defeated the Sultan, who turned towards Malwa, and, through that country, returned to his capital.

A contemporary manuscript called the Eklingamahatmya credits him with proficiency in the Vedas, Smritis, Mimamsa, Upanishads, Vyakarana, politics and literature. He wrote a commentary on Jayadeva’s Gitagovinda and an explanation of the Chandisatakam. For his knowledge of dramatic art and literature he has been described as the new Bharata. He wrote four dramas in which he is said to have made use of four provincial languages. He was also highly proficient in music, and wrote three works on the science of music called Sarigitamga, Sangitamimamsti and Suraprabandha.

Under his patronage his architect Mandana wrote a number of works some of which were on iconography, some on house-building and some on house decoration. The same Mandana’s brother, Natha, and his son Govinda also wrote a number of works on architecture.

He built as many as 32 out of the 84 forts in Mewar. He surrounded the citadel of Chitor with a number of bastions and built a cart-road with seven gates from the foot of the hill, on which the citadel stood, up to its summit. In 1458 was laid the foundation of a new fort at Kumbhalgarh. He was responsible for the construction of a number of temples and wells with arrangements for drawing water. He built the temples of KumbhasvamI and Adivariaha and repaired the temple of Eklingaji which was partially destroyed by invasion. 

After a reign of 35 years a reign full of glory and splendour Kumbha departed from this world, leaving behind him a name which is honoured in history, and remembered to this day as that of one of the greatest sovereigns who ever ruled in India. The Kumbhalgarh Inscription says that “he was the root of the tree of righteousness, home of virtue and purity, support of wealth, birthplace of truth, abode of prowess, limit of constancy and fortitude, and a representative of Kalpadruma (the tree in Heaven which grants all desires). His charities were greater than those of the famous Rija Bhoj and Karan.”

Inscriptions found in Chitor, Kumbhalgarh, Ranpur and Abu show that he defeated all his enemies, reduced some to be his vassals and incorporated portions of the territories of others with his own. He captured Bundi, Bamoda and conquered Haravati. He captured and incorporated with Mewar, Mandalgarh, Sinhapur, Khatoo, Jaua and Chatsoo, the whole of the district of Toda, and Ajmer. He made the Sapadalaksha country, including Sambhar, his tributary, and imposed a tax on the salt produced there. He imposed a tax on the “salt mines” at Didwana and conquered the city of Naraina. He conquered Naradiyanagar (Narwar), Yagnapur (Jahazpur), Malpura, Yoginipur (Jawar) and Dungarpur, driving out Rao Gopal. He burnt down Vrandavatipur and took the hill fort of Gargarat, now called Gangadhar (in Jhallawar). He ” burnt Mallaranyapur, Sinhapuri, and Ratnpur and destroyed several kings.” He killed the enemy and took Mandowar (Mandor). He conquered Amradadri (Amber) and won the battle of Kotra and took Mandalkar (Mandalgarh). He took Giripur. He conquered Sarangpur, and humbled the pride of Muhammad, its ruler, who had slain his master and become king of the place. He conquered Hamirpur and married the daughter of its king, Ranbir;  captured the hilly country of Vardhaman (Badnor?) from the Mers; took Amrdachal(?) and conquered the Jankachal1 hill from the King of Malwa and built a fort on it; he conquered and occupied the territory of the Sultan of Delhi. He conquered Gokarana Mountain and subjugated the kingdom of Abu and built Achalgarh on the top of it, and made the Deora chief his vassal ; he conquered Gagron (in Kotah), Visalpur and razed to the ground Dhanyanagar and destroyed Khandel. He conquered the famous fortress of Ranthambhor. He took away the whole of the wealth and kingdom of Muzaffar and humbled his pride; conquered Nagor (Marwar)and plundered Jangaludesha (country west of Ajmer) and incorporated Godwar with his dominions. He repeatedly defeated the kings of Malwa and Gujrat singly and once combined3 and was called the Hindu Suratran (Sultan), and was presented with the Umbrella of royalty by the kings of Delhi and Gujrat whose territories he had conquered. He was known to the world as Rajaguru, Danayuvu, Chapaguru (Master of Archery), and Sailaguru (Master of Mountains) and Parama Guru (Great Master).

Sources used

1)Indian Resistance to early Muslim Invaders upto 1206 AD, Ram Gopal Misra

2)The History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol 5, Edited by – R.C. Majumdar

3)Hammira Mahakavya, Nayachandra Suri

4) The story of Islamic Imperialism in India, Sita Ram Goel

5)Muslim Save System in Medieval India, KS Lal

6)Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol 1, Colonel Tod

7)History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol 6, Edited by- RC Majumdar

8)Maharana Kumbha, Sovereign, Soldier, Scholar by Har Bilas Sarda

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India-China Conflict: India’s Victory of 1967 and the 2020 Clash #Sangam Talk By Probal DasGupta

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The Indian army veteran and author of Watershed 1967: India’s forgotten victory over China, Probal DasGupta talks of the Indo-China relations, particularly the lesser known incidents of 1967. The present standoff in Ladakh has raised questions of war and has brought up the historic narrative between the two countries. today. For fifty years, the event that dominated our memories was the 1962 India-China war, which India lost. However, the present crisis has focused on India’s victory over China in 1967. Probal’s book Watershed 1967 has played a significant role in reshaping the India-China narrative. In this talk he discusses China’s motives and India’s options today, and how 1967 is relevant in the current India-China skirmishes.

About the Speaker:

Probal DasGupta is an Indian army veteran and author…

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Ancient History History Maritime History Medieval History Miscellaneous

Weapons from Punjab and Rajasthan seized in Maharashtra

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While the Hanuman Chalisa and Azaan issue is simmering in Maharashtra huge batches of Swords and other weapons transported from states like Rajasthan and Punjab are being seized in Maharashtra. In last few days three such cases have been registered by Maharashtra police. Isn’t it a clear message that violence is knocking on the door? The rioters being celebrated and awarded in Karnataka and the long list of benefiters from Karauli riots convey the same! Wake up Hindus!

Source: https://www.naidunia.com

Maharashtra के धुले में मिला हथियारों का जखीरा, तलवार और खंजर समेत 90 हथियार जब्त, 4 आरोपी गिरफ्तार। अजान को लेकर राज ठाकरे की होने वाली सभा के लिए, राजस्थान से भेजी जा रही थीं तलवारें।

महाराष्ट्र के धुले जिले से भारी मात्रा में हथियार…

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Ancient History History Maritime History Medieval History Miscellaneous

One more territory lost to the changing Demography! The Uttarakhand!

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Courtesy: https://twitter.com/anshul_aliganj/status/1517047053821825025?s=21&t=m0uR2PDEkJsDWLonYOQqAg

In Uttarakhand the Tourism Industry has been taken over by Samuday Vishesh. After the change in demography this was bound to happen.

Gadhwal was lost already and and now kumaon getting lost. Be it Nainital, Bhimtal, Ramnagar, Bageshwar,Jageshwar,Ranikhet and Kisano every where you will find them.
Locals have leased their hotels and restaurants to them.

Even when they are of not so well off background still they are able to do highest bidding and are able to get the hotels on lease.
Samuday Vishesh People from far off places have come and taken over Uttarakhand Tourism.

They have removed the local waiters , cooks and…

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Ancient History History Maritime History Medieval History Miscellaneous

The Jama Masjid of Ahmedabad on the glorious Bhadra Kali Mandir

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Source:
https://www.booksfact.com/archeology/jama-masjid-ahmedabad-bhadrakali-temple.html

The Jama Masjid in Ahmedabad was originally A Bhadra Kali temple. It was converted into a mosque by Ahmed Shah I. The intricate flowers, coiled serpents representing Kundalini and bells, the remnants of the glorious temple that it may have been. Such carvings are banned in Islam. This goes on to support the history of the temple. Goddess Bhadrakali was believed to be the Nagar Devi of Ahmedabad.

One of Ahmedabad’s ancient names was Bhadra which was after Devi Bhadrakali. Ahmedabad was named after Ahmad Shah I of the Muzaffarid dynasty who forcibly captured “Karnavati” in 1411.

Bhadrakali temple is believed to be one of the oldest temple of Ahmedabad and located inside Bhadra Fort in center of city.The exact date of construction is not known but as per the evidence this holy shrine…

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Ancient History History Maritime History Medieval History Miscellaneous

Facts about Mahmud Ghazni

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Courtesy: Eztainutlacatl

How many of you know that Mahmud’s father was a Kyrghyz Buddhist caught in childhood and converted forcibly? How many know that Mahmud is called Zabuli because he was born out of a forced union between that slave Sabuktegin and a Zabuli Princess?

And how many of you know that Multan sided Mahmud against the Shahis in the name of religion but Mahmud decided Multan was not Muslim enough and attacked it? And how many of you know that of the 17 raids of Mahmud, 14 are against his neighbour, the Shahis?

And how many of you know that Mahmud is not exactly great – he waged an annual jihad against India but in 31 his year rule, only 17 raids are known – what happened to the balance 13? And how…

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Ancient History History Maritime History Medieval History Miscellaneous

Kastur Ba: the secret shadow

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On her 153rd Birth anniversary

Courtesy: Sheshapatangi1

https://twitter.com/sheshapatangi1/status/1513352430250995715?s=21&t=i81i06F0q8_Wv8EeFTvdjg

“I simply cannot bear to look at Ba’s face, the expression is often like that of a meek cow and that in her own dump manner she is saying something” –
MKG

To keep the brand, “Mahatma” popular, they never told the miserable story of his wife.
On her 153rd birth anniversary, let us revisit a tragedy called #KasturbaGandhi.

Born on April 11, 1869 at Porbander, Kasturba was elder to Gandhi by 6 months, she married Mohandas with whom she played since her childhood.

Gandhi’s rejection of Kasturba came to the extent…

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Ancient History History Maritime History Medieval History Miscellaneous

My people uprooted

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Courtesy: Shri Tathagata Roy

HISTORY.
8 April 1950 a fateful pact signed betn Jawaharlal Nehru & Liaquat Ali Khan,PM of Pakistan. After 2 months of Govt-engineered pogrom,slaughter, rape of Hindus in East Pakistan. Estimated 50,000 Hindus killed. An instance of incredible political stupidity on Nehru’s part.

Upon Liaquat’s glib assurance that Hindu refugees would be taken back and restored,the gullible Nehru decided that no rehabilitation of Hindus was necessary in India. Result: no refugee went back and were forced to live under inhuman conditions in Indian camps.

The Pakis were so insincere about the pact that their Govt issued secret instructions not to restore any Hindu to his property. Even after the pact all Hindu passengers in down Assam Mail were pulled down and killed just outside Santahar station.

The two Bengali ministers…

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