Miscellaneous

Arikamedu – The Ancient Tamil Port that Traded With the World 2000+ Years Ago

Courtesy: https://twitter.com/bhandarkari/status/1556318082766815232?s=21&t=8ArVPldtZUAKPovp7L5S9Q

On the eastern coast of India, A few minutes south of Puducherry, on the banks of the river Ariyankuppam, lies Arikamedu – one of the most vibrant and fascinating cities of the ancient world.

We have seen India’s buoyant relations with other ancient civilizations in previous threads. Its trade with the western world initially took place via the waste coast. In the second half of the first millennium BCE, the southeastern coast also gained prominence.

The Indian peninsula sits at the center of the Indian ocean. The kingdoms of India also prospered greatly in the first millennium BCE. This led to India being a center of trade between ancient Asian powers such as China and ancient Europe and Africa.

A site that has thrown considerable light on the global trade on the southeastern coast of India is Arikamedu. Arikamedu was a major center of Indo-Roman trade from the 2nd century BCE and one of the earliest known manufacturing centers of Indo-Pacific beads.

While its origins are uncertain, many discoveries such as shells, beads, and pottery have established that a thriving local culture existed long before the arrival of foreign influences.

Arikamedu found mentions in several significant Greco-Roman texts, such as “Periplus of the Erythraen Sea,” written in the first century CE. It refers to Arikamedu by the Roman name ‘Poduke.’

Arikamedu was also mentioned in Ptolemy’s “Atlas Geographia” as ‘Poduke emporion’ in the mid-1st century CE.

We find the reflection of this on the Indian side as well. Various works of the Sangam tradition, e.g., “Pattupattu” (written well before 300 CE), provide accounts of the Romans and the trade with the Romans. Here, the Romans were called Yavans (Yavanaha).

These references talk of the export of Black Pepper, Italian wine, and sounds made by loading and unloading ships, to mention a few points.

Despite being such a booming town for 1000 years, Arikamedu was lost to history for centuries until the French East India Company accidentally discovered ancient ruins in the 1730s.

It was later excavated extensively by Sir Mortimer Wheeler, then Director General of ASI, in the 1940s and by Jean-Marie Casal. ASI has continued to study the site ever since.

Excavations at the site have uncovered substantial evidence of a Roman trading settlements, including amphorae, lamps, glassware, coins, beads made of stone, glass, gold, and gems.

These discoveries suggested that the settlement engaged in considerable trade with the Roman and later Byzantine world between the 2nd century BCE to the 8th century CE. That is around 1000 years.

Arikamedu was also a center of manufacture in its own right producing textiles, particularly the cotton fabric muslin, jewelry, stone, glass, and gold beads (It was particularly famous for this).

Sites such as Arikamedu tell the story of a comprehensive exchange between the Roman world and the Indian Subcontinent. It shows that the interaction was rich and multifaceted. It also highlights the booming trade between world civilizations that took place 2000 years ago.

This trade also allowed distant communities to share various elements of craft culture and, in turn, enriched these societies considerably.

The volume of Rome’s trade with India was so high that it compelled Pliny the Elder to lament In “Natural History” that “India, China, and the Arabian peninsula take one hundred million sesterces from our empire per annum at a conservative estimate…”

Natural History is one of the most important literary works in history, and it is the largest single work to have survived from the Roman Empire to the modern day. “Natural History” is a compilation of information from other ancient authors. It was written in 77 CE.

Arikamedu, at its peak, was a melting pot of civilizations. An apt ode to its location as a geographic center of the maritime Silkroad These global settlers stayed in the town for centuries, long after the trade dwindled, correspondingly with the decline of the Romans.

The thousand years of the known history of Arikamedu must have left a tangible legacy in three forms – the grasp of the seas in the region, the awareness of the global trade and geography, and the maritime skills honed in the local populations.

And perhaps, it can be hypothesized that these legacies contributed to the maritime ascendancy of the Cholas, who dominated the Indian ocean theatre between the 9th-12th centuries.

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Medieval History Miscellaneous

The legacy of loyalty by the great Mughals 

Courtesy: https://twitter.com/mumukshusavitri/status/1532261065207074817?s=24&t=rsnv1Gu82ULo9uO982zZig

1 The Mughal emperor Humayun blinded his own brother Kamran & murdered his brothers Askari and Hindal.

2 Akbar the “great” killed his own foster brother Adham Khan by throwing him down from the palace walls at Agra, in 1562. Akbar’s murder of Adham Khan was illustrated in the Akbarnama by the Mughal court artists Miskin and Shankar.

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3 Jahangir cruelly blinded his own son Khusrau as his father Akbar wanted his grandson as heir, because Jahangir was an alcoholic & drug addict. Khusrau was captured, put on an elephant & paraded down Chandni Chowk, while his kinsmen were held at knife-point on raised platforms.

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4 As the elephant approached each platform, each supporter was impaled on a stake (through his bowels), while Khusrau was forced to watch & listen to the screams. This was repeated numerous times, then Khusrau was blinded by his father Jahangir in…

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Ancient History History Maritime History Medieval History Miscellaneous

India-China Conflict: India’s Victory of 1967 and the 2020 Clash #Sangam Talk By Probal DasGupta

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The Indian army veteran and author of Watershed 1967: India’s forgotten victory over China, Probal DasGupta talks of the Indo-China relations, particularly the lesser known incidents of 1967. The present standoff in Ladakh has raised questions of war and has brought up the historic narrative between the two countries. today. For fifty years, the event that dominated our memories was the 1962 India-China war, which India lost. However, the present crisis has focused on India’s victory over China in 1967. Probal’s book Watershed 1967 has played a significant role in reshaping the India-China narrative. In this talk he discusses China’s motives and India’s options today, and how 1967 is relevant in the current India-China skirmishes.

About the Speaker:

Probal DasGupta is an Indian army veteran and author…

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Ancient History History Maritime History Medieval History Miscellaneous

Weapons from Punjab and Rajasthan seized in Maharashtra

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While the Hanuman Chalisa and Azaan issue is simmering in Maharashtra huge batches of Swords and other weapons transported from states like Rajasthan and Punjab are being seized in Maharashtra. In last few days three such cases have been registered by Maharashtra police. Isn’t it a clear message that violence is knocking on the door? The rioters being celebrated and awarded in Karnataka and the long list of benefiters from Karauli riots convey the same! Wake up Hindus!

Source: https://www.naidunia.com

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One more territory lost to the changing Demography! The Uttarakhand!

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Courtesy: https://twitter.com/anshul_aliganj/status/1517047053821825025?s=21&t=m0uR2PDEkJsDWLonYOQqAg

In Uttarakhand the Tourism Industry has been taken over by Samuday Vishesh. After the change in demography this was bound to happen.

Gadhwal was lost already and and now kumaon getting lost. Be it Nainital, Bhimtal, Ramnagar, Bageshwar,Jageshwar,Ranikhet and Kisano every where you will find them.
Locals have leased their hotels and restaurants to them.

Even when they are of not so well off background still they are able to do highest bidding and are able to get the hotels on lease.
Samuday Vishesh People from far off places have come and taken over Uttarakhand Tourism.

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Ancient History History Maritime History Medieval History Miscellaneous

The Jama Masjid of Ahmedabad on the glorious Bhadra Kali Mandir

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Source:
https://www.booksfact.com/archeology/jama-masjid-ahmedabad-bhadrakali-temple.html

The Jama Masjid in Ahmedabad was originally A Bhadra Kali temple. It was converted into a mosque by Ahmed Shah I. The intricate flowers, coiled serpents representing Kundalini and bells, the remnants of the glorious temple that it may have been. Such carvings are banned in Islam. This goes on to support the history of the temple. Goddess Bhadrakali was believed to be the Nagar Devi of Ahmedabad.

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Ancient History History Maritime History Medieval History Miscellaneous

Facts about Mahmud Ghazni

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Courtesy: Eztainutlacatl

How many of you know that Mahmud’s father was a Kyrghyz Buddhist caught in childhood and converted forcibly? How many know that Mahmud is called Zabuli because he was born out of a forced union between that slave Sabuktegin and a Zabuli Princess?

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Ancient History History Maritime History Medieval History Miscellaneous

Kastur Ba: the secret shadow

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On her 153rd Birth anniversary

Courtesy: Sheshapatangi1

https://twitter.com/sheshapatangi1/status/1513352430250995715?s=21&t=i81i06F0q8_Wv8EeFTvdjg

“I simply cannot bear to look at Ba’s face, the expression is often like that of a meek cow and that in her own dump manner she is saying something” –
MKG

To keep the brand, “Mahatma” popular, they never told the miserable story of his wife.
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Ancient History History Maritime History Medieval History Miscellaneous

My people uprooted

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Courtesy: Shri Tathagata Roy

HISTORY.
8 April 1950 a fateful pact signed betn Jawaharlal Nehru & Liaquat Ali Khan,PM of Pakistan. After 2 months of Govt-engineered pogrom,slaughter, rape of Hindus in East Pakistan. Estimated 50,000 Hindus killed. An instance of incredible political stupidity on Nehru’s part.

Upon Liaquat’s glib assurance that Hindu refugees would be taken back and restored,the gullible Nehru decided that no rehabilitation of Hindus was necessary in India. Result: no refugee went back and were forced to live under inhuman conditions in Indian camps.

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